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EXAM 2- ReviewGood luck and let me know if you have any questions. All the information is from the notes or the readings. If a term is blank then I didn’t have them in my notes and couldn’t find them in the reading and most likely aren’t very important. This happened with some of the articles too, some of the information was very obscure, so I really just got the main points/issues. Hope this helps!! 1. Descriptive representation-considers that the legislature should be to some degree a mirror of the nation which should look, feel, think and act in a way which reflects the people as a whole2. Political/ideological representation- the extent to which ideological divisions are represented in a legislature, via parties, individuals or both3. Party representation- regardless of party ideology, if a party enjoys broad support but wins no seats, then the legislature is by definition not representative 4. Geographic representation-each region id is demarcated in such a way thatit has representatives that are accountable to that area5. Legislative quota- a quota of a type of person that must be in the legislaturea. Ex: gender quota6. Reserved seats-set aside a fixed percentage of legislative seats for members of a certain groupa. Ex X% of seats for indigenous people 7. Party quotas- require a minimum threshold of candidates fielded by political parties have certain characteristics8. Arguments for gender quotas:a. Compensatory for exclusionary barriers, right to equal representation, women should not be tokens, “mainstreaming” women’s experiences, does not deny voters, enhances democratization and models9. Arguments against gender quotas:a. Violates the principal of equal opportunity, undemocratic, candidates selected basis of gender rather than qualifications, women don’t want to be elected on basis of gender, creates conflicts within parties, quotas violate liberal democracy10. Electable positions- a factor determining if quotas are effective11. Effectiveness of gender quotas and electoral rules- the representation of women in politics has increased in recent years, coinciding with widespread adoption of quotas (cultural and attitude changes has lead to both)12. Gender, ethnicity and party cleavages-a. Gender cuts across party cleavagesb. Ethnicity and race coincide with party cleavages (race and ethnicity are ascriptive identities)13.Different solutions for different problems to ensure sufficient representation in the policy making process:a. Ensuring women are elected from all partiesb. Ensuring there is sufficient minority representation for groups to be involved in the legislative process14. Origins of gender quotas- adopted across countries in 1994- there was a convention on Women’s rights and this is when gender quotas were adopted-early implementers were Scandinavian countries and Argentina and began todiffuse regionally (probably won’t be on test)a. 1995- Peru adopted gender quotas15. Origins of reserved seats-came out of close conflict situations, after the Rwanda genocide there came an idea about power sharing among different minorities- there are reserved seats in the Iraq constitutiona. Reserved seats- set aside a fixed percentage of legislative seats for members of a certain group16. Centrifugal tendency of multiparty system- Duverget’s law says SMD you usually get two parties which cluster around the median voter, when we move to multiparty systems policy moves away from the median voter17. Effective number of legislative parties- these are related to the number and types of issue dimensions that divide the parties (you should look at table 5.2 in the Lijphard1999 reading) the average of the effective number of parties for the 36 countries is 3.16- they range from Papua New Guinea at 5.98 to Botswana at 1.3518. Six issue dimensions of party competition: main characteristics and where they are found: (there were 7 listed in the reading)a. Socioeconomic dimension -“the most important of the issues and it is present in all of the democratic party systems in the period 1945-96”b. Religions dimension - religious differences can be found in more than half of the 36 democraciesc. The cultural -ethnic dimension-it is of some importance in the nine countries that are plural societiesd. Urban-rural dimension - there are many differences between urban and rural areas and these issues are present in the party system of only a few and with medium saliencee. The dimension of regime support - can occur as a result of the presence of important parties that oppose the democratic regime- occurs mainly in Eupean and Asian countriesf. The foreign policy dimension -happens in 12 of our 26 democraciesg. The materialist vs. postmaterialist dimension - revolves around 2 issues: participatory democracy and environmentalism- middle class people in Western democracies 19. Correlation between the electoral system and the number of parties- electoral rules have a mechanical effect on party systemsa. Majoritarian electoral systems generate fewer partiesb. Proportional representation systems are more permissive of multiple parties20. Correlation between the number of issue dimensions and the number of parties- there is a relationship between the subjective and objective interests and party’s supporters needs and party programs- there is a verystrong and statistically significant correlation between issue dimensions and number of parties (see figure 5.1 in Lijphard)a. Issue Cleavages- dimensions of political conflict along which parties organize and differentiate themselves21.Relationship between the electoral system and issue dimensionsa. Electoral system- a set of rules chosen so that a society can be decisiveb. Issue dimensions can be socially constructed22. Two party system-two major parties of comparable size compete for electoral support, providing the framework for political competition23. Multiparty system- several parties achieve significant representation in parliament, becoming serious contenders for a place in a governing coalition, proportional representation24. Electoral rules and politicized cleavages-electoral rules can influence which cleavages become politicized- a. Institutional- party systems consider how electoral rules influence party formation. Elites’ decisions mobilize constituencies, voters calculate based on probability of a wasted vote, Cox generalized this finding to multi-member districts, such that the expected number of

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FSU CPO 3930r - EXAM 2- Review

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