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2 11 13 End of Chapter 4 Race and Sport Participation Stereotypes and attitudes people develop stereotypes about sport participants related to their cognitive and natural athletic abilities Racial minority athletes are often treated differently in academic advising graduation rates treatment by administrators and coaches opportunities for sport participation life after sports Race Issues Beyond University Athletics Marketing and spectator consumption Promotions designed for racial minorities versus those designed for Whites International sport Globalization of profession sport Sport experiences of Native Persons Differential opportunities and treatment 2 20 13 Chapter 5 Sex and Gender sex biological characteristic of individuals based on their physiological properties and reproductive apparatus gender the social roles expected of women and men expectations attitudes behaviors and interests perceived appropriate for women and men varied experiences are due to gender not sex Origins of Gender identity parents Schools mass media Gender in sport context Gender influences the sports women and men play the sports deemed appropriate for women and men sports advertisements and promotions 2 22 13 Male and Female Earnings Differences based on gender not revenues generated Paradox of the contented working women Reasons for Underrepresentation in Leadership Gender stereotypes leadership job type Structural forces Discrimination Social networks Nature of the coaching position Personal characteristics attitudes about being a head coach intention to become a head coach occupational turnover 2 25 13 Sex Gender and Sport Participation Men are generally more physically active Women s sport participation has increased over time More sport opportunities Government mandates Global women s movement Health and fitness movement Increased media coverage of women participating Sport Participants Different barriers for White and minority women Motivation Time energy Costs Influence of Title IX on participation of White and racial minority women Marketing of Sport Motives for sport consumption Men are primarily motivated by eustress the motivation to be emotionally aroused at the event while women are motivated more by group affiliation Attending women s sporting events importance of players serving as role models the need to support women s sport the perception of women s sport as a wholesome environment Customer service gender differences in the dimensions of customer service deemed important e g cleanliness number of restrooms etc Promoting sport women underrepresented as athletes endorsers depictions emphasize their appearance sometimes above their expertise 2 27 13 Age Chapter 6 Analysis of Age Three reasons for discussing age in the workplace 1 The average employee age is increasing 2 In order to spur economic growth there is a need for older workers to remain in organizations longer than they have in the past 3 Age discrimination is more prevalent than it has ever been Background and Key Terms The term old is often in the eye of the beholder Perception of age is also impacted by legal mandates Age in discrimination in Employment Act sport organization rules Can claim age discrimination at 40 An increased proportion of people are working past retirement age because changes in social security benefits Benefiting longer employment health insurance through the workplace insufficient retirement funds way to stay active healthier than past generations shift to service economy increased education relative to past generations Age Intersects with other diversity Dimensions Race influences health and well being poverty Sex women generally outlive men will face challenges of later life alone Stereotypes of Age and Employment poor performance belief that older employees are averse to change and set in their ways ability to learn belief that older employees are less able to learn new materials or techniques Shorter tenure belief that older employees will remain in he organization for a shorter time than younger employees More costly belief that older employees cost more due to salaries healthcare and retirement costs More dependable belief that older employees are more responsible and trustworthy Age work opportunities and Experiences A person s age has the potential to influence various opportunities and experiences encountered in the workplace including training and development 1 selection 2 3 mentoring 4 performance and promotion potential 5 exiting the organization Factors Modifying the influences of Age Employee age relative to supervisor s Type of job for which one applies young versus old jobs Human resource practices use of job specific information hiring personnel going through training perception of older workers as source of competitive advantage adding complexity to the job Effects of Age in Work Groups age diversity can result in intergroup bias negatively affect processes and outcomes 8age can be a source of competitive advantage more effective decision making variety of social contacts example Fundraising among YMCA board members Sport and Leisure Participation As people age they re less active advancing age is associated with physical ailments generational effects Age is associated with the types of sports people watch Age also impacts leisure time activates retirees engage in host of leisure time activities including reading and writing exercising traveling listening to music and participating in spiritual and religious activities Prevalence in volunteering 3 1 13 Chapter 7 Mental and Physical Ability Definition and Incidence of Disabilities Disability definition People are considered to have a disability when they have a mental or physical impairment that largely restricts one or major life activities when there is a recorded history of such or when they re considered to have such impairment Can be PHYSICAL or MENTAL 20 of people over age of 5 have a disability Historical Background of Disabilities Found it necessary to hide their disabilities from others Historically persons with disabilities have faced prejudiced through language Been segregated in schools and society Work opportunities Less than 1 3 of persons with disabilities are employed full time They re paid less for their work Work Experiences Supervisor Leader o Poor relationship function of leader member exchange relationships Low Performance Expectations o Function of stereotypes concerning lack of skills time demands from

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FSU SPM 4025 - End of Chapter 4

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