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Cultures of Iberia Midterm Study Guide SPN3510 Crisis de 1898 Economic decay power of great institutions aristocracy and the church impeded the process of modernization loss of Americas Economic crisis of 1898 created a new call for regeneracion and sparked many new political and ideogical movements inspiring a new generation of intellectuals Generacion de 98 that including authors like Miguel de Unamuno and Jose Ortega y Gasset Miguel de Unamuno writer and nationalist of Pa s Vasco liberal in exile during dictatorship of Primo de Rivera reinvented castilla in his poems Jose Ortega y Gasset most influential philosophers in 20th century liberal also in exile during Civil War Nacionalismo emerged at the end of the 19th century especially in places like Catalu a and Pa s Vasco Dictator Primo de Rivera General from Andalucia supported by Alfonso XIII Coup d etat repealed constitution of 1876 that ended monarchy Dissolved congress and senate and prohibited political parties People protested after economic crisis in 1923 1931 Beginning of Segunda Republica and abdication of Alfonso XIII Spain in 1931 Labor conflict salary hours etc 32 4 illiterate analfabetos More than half of population lived in rural Spain Economic crisis Second Republic considered dictablanda The second republic was received with great fervor from the people in the cities while many rural people still believed in the monarchy there was still an overall acceptance of a need for the new republic Had utopian goals to renovate Spain reforms agrarian military secularization of schools legalize divorce free press suffrage for women autonomy for regions Three stages of Republic 1 Bienio Progresista 1931 1933 Implemented all reform stated above agrarian reform created trouble and wasn t successful dominated by diverse coalitions of the left tendency 1933 economic crisis in Spain lead to 2 Bienio Negro 1933 1936 la Republica Aniceto Alcala Zamora right tendency CEDA derecha Catolica goals recuperate land and power for church outcome repression strikes cataluna tried to establish a government fails 30K people in jail Franco led army against strike in Asturias 3 Frente Popular Feb July 1936 Coalition of many left tendency parties once again tried to implement reforms of first stage but moderately conflict over agrarian reform Falange fascist party gained power and were very violent killing political figures La Guerra Civil 1936 1939 The civil war began because of the many divisions that existed within the Second Republic anticlericalism established a big division and there was also a division between the right left parties within the Republic The anticlericalism of the Second Republic involved not only stripping power land and money from the Catholic Church but also burning churches assaulted convents and killing priests El golpe de estado coup d etat didn t work in Madrid or Barcelona or Bilbao or Valencia but succeeded in Southern Spain Galicia and a little later in Sevilla and parts of northern Spain The uprising didn t automatically succeed in big cities because the the militias fought back and the Republic had union and partidos politicos obreros worker s support Las Milicias were volunteer armies of citizens that defended the Second Republic Three leaders headed overthrow Jose Sanjurjo Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco the first two died leaving Franco the only leader It was a very bloody war over 600 000 killed Franco killed Federico Garcia Lorca a famous poet Most intellectuals fled or were killed brain drain International support Italy and Germany supported Nationalists while the Soviet Union supported Second Republic Las brigadas internacionales were intellectuals and members of worker s party or unions from other countries that supported the Second Republic Los Dos Bandos 1 Bando Nacionalista order author unify Spain REJECTED communism and atheism traditional 2 Bando Republicano anticlerical had many factions with differing beliefs liberal The nationalist party won because of the strong division within the Second Republic The Republic was made of many parties organizations unions and militias all with their own ideas and beliefs that separated them from each other While the militias were key at first for the success of the Republic their differences later were a big reason as to why the Republic failed Also the dramatic actions of some Republicans that burned churches scared the traditionally Catholic people away Guernica Work by Picasso that represents los desastres de la Guerra following a German bombing in the city Guernica that killed many innocent people cubism and surrealism El Franquismo 1939 1975 Absolutist and authoritarian regime drawing on certain aspects of the fascist group Falange but also opposing some of their views Franco claimed to be neutral during the Second World War but he silently supported Hitler he sent troops to Russia to support Hitler and the Axis Powers el eje Franco was a devote Catholic and lead his regime accordingly which came to be known as nacionalcatolicismo He erected many religious monuments and churches and claimed that he had won the civil war because of divine intervention Franco was an introvert and bad at public speaking very religious and very cut throat to enemies or dangers to his united Spain Franco s reign was empty of ideology politics and was primitive economically and didn t force modernization the sole purpose was to unite all of Spain under himself and Catholicism through the use of military force and propaganda He practiced censorship oppression and isolated Spain from the rest of Europe Economic goal of Autarqu a or to be a self sufficient country Franco was very reliant on ministers for the real work behind his regime Spanish culture was affected because of the brain drain when intellectuals fled Cultural rebirth of traditional Spanish dances artisanary and other national customs Also created an increase in education and schools economy finally became stable Created the ley de sucesi n declaring the next king to be Principe Juan Carlos de Bourbon who was educated under Franco 1967 Plan of development called milagro ec nomico economic miracle constructed buildings promoted tourism sold the idea of Spain as Andalucia but still wasn t part of European Economic Community Transition to Democracy With a better economy and established middle class people began to urge for freedom and liberties once again Towards the end of his regime Franco left more and more duties

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FSU SPN 3510 - Study Guide

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