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Cultures of Iberia Midterm Study Guide (SPN3510)Crisis de 1898:*Economic decay, power of great institutions, aristocracy and the church impeded the process of modernization, loss of Americas*Economic crisis of 1898 created a new call for “regeneracion” and sparked many new political and ideogical movements, inspiring a new generation of intellectuals – “Generacion de ‘98” that including authors like Miguel de Unamuno and Jose Ortega y Gasset--Miguel de Unamuno: writer and nationalist of País Vasco, liberal, in exile during dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, reinvented “castilla” in his poems--Jose Ortega y Gasset: most influential philosophers in 20th century, liberal, also in exile during Civil War*Nacionalismo emerged at the end of the 19th century, especially in places like Cataluña and País VascoDictator Primo de Rivera:*General from Andalucia, supported by Alfonso XIII*Coup d’etat, repealed constitution of 1876 that ended monarchy *Dissolved congress and senate and prohibited political parties*People protested after economic crisis in 1923*1931: Beginning of Segunda Republica and abdication of Alfonso XIIISpain in 1931: *Labor conflict (salary, hours, etc)*32.4% illiterate (analfabetos)*More than half of population lived in rural Spain*Economic crisisSecond Republic: (considered “dictablanda”)*The second republic was received with great fervor from the people in the cities, while many rural people still believed in the monarchy, there was still an overall acceptance of a need for the new republic *Had utopian goals to renovate Spain: reforms: agrarian, military, secularization of schools, legalize divorce, free press, suffrage for women, autonomy for regions*Three stages of Republic: 1. “Bienio Progresista” (1931-1933): Implemented all reform stated above, agrarian reform created trouble and wasn’t successful; dominated by diverse coalitions of the left tendency **1933 economic crisis in Spain lead to…2. “Bienio Negro” (1933-1936): la Republica Aniceto Alcala Zamora (right tendency); CEDA (derecha Catolica); goals: recuperate land and power for church; outcome: repression, strikes, cataluna tried to establish a government (fails), 30K people in jail**Franco led army against strike in Asturias 3. “Frente Popular” (Feb-July 1936): Coalition of many left tendency parties; once again tried to implement reforms of first stage but moderately; conflict over agrarian reform**Falange (fascist party gained power) and were very violent, killing political figuresLa Guerra Civil: *1936-1939*The civil war began because of the many divisions that existed within the Second Republic; anticlericalism established a big division and there was also a division between the right/left parties within the Republic *The anticlericalism of the Second Republic involved not only stripping power, land and money from the Catholic Church but also burning churches, assaulted convents and killing priests *El golpe de estado (coup d’etat) didn’t work in Madrid or Barcelona or Bilbao or Valencia, but succeeded in Southern Spain, Galicia, and a little later in Sevilla and parts of northern Spain*The uprising didn’t automatically succeed in big cities because the the militias fought back and the Republic had union and “partidos politicos obreros” (worker’s) support *Las Milicias: were volunteer armies of citizens that defended the Second Republic*Three leaders headed overthrow: Jose Sanjurjo, Emilio Mola, and Francisco Franco (the first two died leaving Franco the only leader)*It was a very bloody war- over 600,000 killed, Franco killed Federico Garcia Lorca (a famous poet)*Most intellectuals fled or were killed (brain drain)*International support: Italy and Germany supported Nationalists while the Soviet Union supported Second Republic*Las brigadas internacionales: were intellectuals and members of worker’s party or unions from other countries that supported the Second Republic *Los Dos Bandos:1. Bando Nacionalista: order, author, unify Spain- REJECTED: communism and atheism, traditional2. Bando Republicano: anticlerical, had many factions with differing beliefs, liberal*The nationalist party won because of the strong division within the Second Republic. The Republic was made of many parties, organizations, unions and militias all with their own ideas and beliefs that separated them from each other. While the militias were key at first for the success of the Republic, their differences later were a big reason as to why the Republic failed. Also, the dramatic actions of some Republicans that burned churches scared the traditionally Catholic people away.Guernica:*Work by Picasso that represents “los desastres de la Guerra” following a German bombing in the city Guernica that killed many innocent people, cubism and surrealism El Franquismo: *1939-1975*Absolutist and authoritarian regime (drawing on certain aspects of the fascist group Falange but also opposing some of their views)*Franco claimed to be neutral during the Second World War but he silently supported Hitler; he sent troops to Russia to support Hitler and the Axis Powers (el eje)*Franco was a devote Catholic and lead his regime accordingly, which came to be known as “nacionalcatolicismo”. He erected many religious monuments and churches and claimed that he had won the civil war because of divine intervention. *Franco was an introvert, and bad at public speaking, very religious, and very cut-throat to enemies or dangers to his “united” Spain*Franco’s reign was empty of ideology, politics, and was primitive economically and didn’t force modernization- the sole purpose was to unite all of Spain under himself and Catholicism through the use of military force and propaganda. He practiced censorship, oppression, and isolated Spain from the rest of Europe. -Economic goal of Autarquía (or to be a self-sufficient country). -Franco was very reliant on ministers for the real work behind his regime-Spanish culture was affected because of the “brain drain” when intellectuals fled-Cultural rebirth of traditional Spanish dances, artisanary and other national customs-Also created an increase in education and schools, economy finally became stable-Created the “ley de sucesión” declaring the next king to be Principe Juan Carlos de Bourbon (who was educated under Franco)*1967: Plan of development, called “milagro ecónomico” (economic miracle): constructed buildings, promoted tourism,

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FSU SPN 3510 - Study Guide

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