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What is Animal Science?The total store of knowledge relative to the:• Breeding• Feeding• Care and Management• The Marketing and Processing of animals and their products• And gain through research and experienceIt also means the Science and Business of producing domestic livestock species. This includes:• Beef Cattle • Dairy Cattle• Horses• Poultry• Sheep• Goats• SwineAnimal Science is also concerned with foods of animal origin:• Meat• Dairy Foods• EggsThe food industry is one of the largest and most important industries in the world.Animal Science is also concerned with the companion animals and their nutrition, care and welfare.Specialized areas of animal science provide opportunities for graduate/professional studies.Graduate Studies include:• MS/Ph.D. Degree Programs• Animal Production• Breeding and Genetics• Reproductive Physiology• Nutrition and Meats• Professional Study• Veterinary Medicine• Medicine• Dentistry• Law• Business AdministrationsAnimal Science majors are qualified for many challenging careers in business, industry, government, education, and research. Including:• Feed and Equipment Manufactures• Breeding Associations• Pharmaceutical Firms• Meat Processors• Food Distributions• Animal Housing• Universities, Colleges, Community Colleges, Advertising, Horse Firms, Animal Clinics, Zoos, Kennels, Gamekeepers, Veterinary Assistants, Animal Preserves.Types of Employers:• Self Employed• Feed Companies• Animal Health Firms• Livestock Equipment Companies• Commercial Feed Lots• Breeding Firms• Stockyard Companies• Purebred Breeding Associations• Poultry Processors• Riding Stables/Racetracks• Livestock Publications• Radio/TV Stations• Veterinary Supplies• Grain Companies• Commercial Banks• Farm Organizations• Livestock Sales• Livestock Buyers• Government Agencies• Research LaboratoryFlorida Agricultural Overview• Florida Livestock Sales = $1.3 Billion• Leading Milk Producing State in Southeast• Ranks 13th nationally in cash receipts• Ranks 15th nationally in production• 270 Million Gallons = $423 Million• Ranks 13th nationally in broiler productionFlorida Horse Industry• Known around the world for breeding and training thoroughbreds• Produced 40 North American Champions• 17 Breeder’s Cups Champions• 17 Kentucky Derby, Preakness and Belmont Stakes Winners• Produced 61 MillionairesGeneral Animal Science• Factors affecting the supply of food:o Land: the size of the land depends on the amount you can produce; type of land will it grow anything; soil, fertility, and housing developmento Water: not enough of it or too much of ito Fertilizer: increases yield, and can lose nutritiono Irrigationo Yield: costs have gone up. $150 bushels on average per acre of corn in the US. $8.45 per bushelo Incentiveso Weather and Climate: droughts, and too much rain• Factors affecting the demand of food:o Population Growtho Incomeo Food Preferences (taste)o Nutrient Qualityo World Food Shortageso World Nutrition Shortages Price on corn- impact Droughts in mid-west $7.00-$8.50 a bushel, 56 pounds a bushel• Major cost of producing animals is feed.• Monogastric means one stomach animalsFood vs. Food (grain), Humans or LivestockThe feeding of grain to livestock• Feed efficiency ratioso How efficient is the feed we’re feeding them?o 10% protein in corn (on average 7.5%- 8%)• Swine: 3.5:1 (3.5 units per 1 unit) o 3.5 pounds of feed per pound of gain (beef) or 3.5 kg of feed per kg of gain (beef)• Poultry: 2:1 o 2 pounds of feed per pound of gaino 6-8 weeks to reach weight• Cattle: o On grain: 7.5:1  7.5 pounds of feed per pound of gaino On roughage: 12.5:1 12.5 pounds of feed per pound of gaino Have more than one stomach; grains are high in energy; and they have the ability to digest foliage (bacteria located in the rumas) • How much do feedlot cattle weigh when taken to the market?• It depends. Usually about 600-700 pounds• What is the final slaughter weight of feedlot cattle?o 1000 pounds or better• Feedlot is a place to feed animals. Bulk of the diet is mostly gained during this time. It is where we finish out the cattle before going to slaughter.• Cow-calf operation: where you breed the cow than drop the calf• Calves are weaned at what weight?o Usually about 600-700 pounds• Weaning is the complete separation of offspring and parents.How much grain does a 1000 pound steer consume?• 1000 pound steer X 7.5 pounds of grain= 7500 pounds of graino Not true.• The fallacy is that only about 30 to 40 % of the final weight of a feedlot animal (steer or heifer) is a tribute to gain feedingLet’s take a 650 pound weaned calf and place it in feedlot. The desired weight is 1000 pounds.• Weaned weight is 650 pounds, the difference is 350 pounds.• 350 pounds X 7.5= 2,625 pounds of grainSo feed conversion based on grain feeding is reduced in actuality to:• Amount of feed consumed per slaughter weight of animal• 2,625 divided by 1000 equals 2.6/1 or 2.6:1How much did this animal gain per pound offered?• 1000lb steer divided by 2,625lb of grain equals 0.38lb beef/1lb of grainReported in literature this way: G/F• Actual Gain was 350lb → G/F= 350/2625= 0.141lb beef per 1lb gain or • F/G= 2625 grain per 350 gain (beef)= 7.5lb of grain per 1lb of gain(beef)How much do cattle eat per day?• Depends on the size of the animal and the breed. Average is 20 pounds per day. The bigger ones eat 20-30 pounds a day.How to Improve the World Food Situation?• Curb population growth• Increase farm prices• Cultivate more land• Increase yields: breed cow when they are 15 months. Don’t want to breed on the first cycle (283 days)• Feed more roughage and less grain• Produce leaner animals: need fat but want more muscular animals• Decrease number of animals• Develop more efficient animals• Control disease and parasites• Improve and increase protein source• Tap sea for more food• Increase fish culture• Convers energy• Control pollution• Establish grain reserves• Waste not-want-not• Increase exchange between countries• Increase research, education and extensionChapter 2: Birth of Animal ScienceDomestication• Functions of Animals:o Food o Clothingo Powero Recreation: dog shows and horse showso Convert inedible feeds into valuable productso Diversification: more than one source of incomeo By-products from

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FAMU ANS 3006 - What is Animal Science?

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