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Art History (Post-Impressionism through Surrealism) - EXAM 1SYMBOLISM- started as a literary movement with Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal> criticized for being to gruesome and unpleasant- not a unified style in art, but rather an "ideal" reacting against realism and naturalism- interest in representing the "idea" rather than the matter> Platonism - finding absolute truth- started with Impressionism, continued from Romanticism- subjectivity is the key to art and expression- attempted to access inner self/creativity through writing and images- tried to suggest or parallel nature, NOT copy it- turned inward to their emotions, dreams and spirituality for inspiration- pervasive themes  love, desire, death, sensuality- Bocklin:> Bocklin was the progenitor to Symbolism> Isle of the Dead - Bocklin, 1880, oil on canvas- imaginary dream world- Comparison to Monet's The Seine at Lavacourt (Impressionism ):> Monet's:- actual place- not realistically rendered> Bocklin's:- imaginary place (memorial for the dead)- academically smooth paint (not necessarily a Symbolist)- timelessness- Moreau:> academically trained artist> considered the first symbolist***> his work was referred to as "poetic hallucinations"> Salome - Moreau, 1874-76, woodcut/paper- biblical story- Salome becomes famously interpreted as a femme fatale in Symbolist art> The Apparition - Moreau, 1874-76, woodcut/paper- Moreau painted this story many times- Comparison to previous version:> Salome is more seductive> John's head is shown beheaded and floating - more gruesome> combined the beginning and the consequence in one scene> possibly represents her remorse- Redon:> critics emphasized the originality in his works> Eye-Balloon - Redon, 1878, charcoal on paper- Redon's version of Salome- John's head is represented as an eye-balloon- ambiguous meaning (Symbolist quality)- eyes are frequent subjects in Redon's work***> Redon's lithographic series "In Dreams"- this is how Redon invisions the inside world - Vision - Redon, 1879, lithograph> Comparison to Goya ( The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters ) :- both depict 'the dreamer'- Goya's is frightening, while Redon's is ambiguous and serene> Closed Eyes - Redon, 1889-90, oil on canvas- very transparent- strange portrait - similar to a death mask- ambiguous setting/space> Flower Clouds - Redon, 1903, pastel- has a suggested horizon- the individuals are not in control of their journey (no paddles)- represents Redon's personal voyage?- spiritual, hopeful- The Presence of the Femme Fatale in Symbolism:> social significance – women’s rights increasing- reflects the anxiety of the male ego> fear of the power of femininity and sexuality> use of icons of temptation  Eve, Medusa, Pandora, Salome> Salome’s story becomes very famous after the outbreak of syphilis due to prostitution> The Kiss – Beardsley, illustration for Oscar Wilde’s Salome, 1893, pen & ink- Salome is less seductive and more villainous than Moreau’s- Salome is aware of her power- beheading = metaphor for castration/impotence (power of women over men)- her hair resembles Medusa> Salome – Julius Klinger, 1909, color zincograph- blood is reminiscent of Beardsley’s piece- Salome is walking with a panther- peacock feathers – associated with women in art> Sin – Franz Von Stuck, 1893, oil on canvas- Eve is the femme fatale- in the shadows, seductive- she is shown as an accomplice to the snake, not naïve> Sleeping Medusa – Khnopff, 1896, pastel- Medusa is shown sleeping  reserved, not dangerous, no snakes in her hair- portraying the alienation/misunderstanding of the femme fatale character> referring to Khnopff’s own feeling of alienation?> The Temptation of Saint Anthony – Rops, 1878, watercolor, pastel and gouache- pig = symbol for lust- Satan replaces Jesus with Eros (symbol of sex drive) on the cross to temp St. Anthony- her supple body heavily contrasts with Jesus’ starving figure- Ensor:> very successful Belgium painter> Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889 – Ensor, 1888- represents an imaginary event- Christ is arriving on Carnival Day (similar to Mardi Gras)- showing the grotesque nature of mob mentality***- people are unaware of Christ’s presence- technique:> visible brushstrokes> thick/blotchy impasto patches of color> using color as a metaphor***VINCENT VAN GOGH- Dutch artist- “the father of modernism”- Van Gogh and Seurat = first artists to separate the physical world from the subject in order to infuse the subject with more value***- the first “mad starving artist”  modeled “isolation” as being something necessary for art- left the urban life of Paris for rural areas to find truth and sincerity through nature> went to Arles (Southern rural France) in 1888- rise of the middle class***> both artists and patrons were starting to include the middle class> sought for simplicity and purity in art (a natural truth)- strong emphasis on COLOR in his artwork – very aware that this was his contribution to modernism- very important to art history for his extensive writings on his thoughts about his art- The Potato Eaters – Van Gogh, 1885, oil on canvas> peasant farmers = opposition of himself and urban life- conceived as “uncivilized” or “other” society> Comparison to Millet’s Man with a Hoe (Realism) :- both portray peasants tied to the earth, away from the city- Van Gogh’s is much more ugly and grotesque> he wanted these people to evoke the earth  look dirty/gritty fromhard labor> monochromatic> use of sfumato – smooth shading, not harsh outlines> he wanted this painting to look untrained – like a peasant could have made it> borders on the line of being caricatures/mockery- Self-Portrait – Van Gogh, 1886-87, oil on canvas> an earlier self-portrait showed that he is capable of painting in traditional styles> one year later he made this one- uses daub style (similar to pointalism - Seurat)- he chose to paint this way***- interest in complimentary colors  creates dynamism- The Sower – Van Gogh, 1888, oil on canvas> this was van Gogh’s first radical break from traditional art***> Comparison to Millet’s The Sower (Realism) :- van Gogh’s differences:> peasant is less heroic – dwarfed by the tree> color is evocative, emotional, unrealistic> surface is flattened, no perspective> sun is thickly painted (heavy) – using material to create meaning> scene is asymmetrical> influence from Japanese prints:-

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FSU ARH 4450 - EXAM 1

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