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Exam 1 Study Guide:• Revenue Management: o Strategies and tactics used by companies (hotels, airlines, ect.) to manage the allocation of their capacity to different fare classes over time in order to maximize revenueChapter 6:• Pricing theory: suggest that hospitality operations should price rooms and food and beverage items at a price to maximize their profit and to control cost, while allowing customers to receive something at the proper costo Intuitive method:  Requires no real knowledge Prices are placed on items because the operator assumes people will buy at these prices No advantages for the company Disadvantage is that prices charged consume no profit for the companyo Rule-of-thumb method: Had validity at one point in time but cannot be relied upon in today’s highly competitive marketo Trial and Error Method: Prices are changed up and down to see what effect they have on the revenues and profits Ignores the fact that there are other variables that affect sales revenue apart from prices Can be confusing to customers during the price testing periodo Price- cutting method: When prices are reduced below those of competitors Risk if it ignores costs, because if variable costs are higher than prices, then profit will be eroded Some restaurants do this assuming that it will be more than made up in alcohol saleso High price method: Done deliberately but then they have to have product differentiation and emphasize quality Might encourage customers to move elsewhere if they don’t think it’s worth the priceo Competitive method: Matching the prices to those of the competition but then differentiating in other areas Risky if differentiation is not made between the marketso Mark up: Difference between the cost of the item and its selling price Used when a restaurant’s traditional food cost percentage is applied to determine the price of any new menu item offered• Long Run Pricing:o Price is determined in the long run in a marketplace as a result of supply and demando Must be set with the establishments overall long-term financial objectiveo Objectives are subject to change in the long-run• Short run or tactical pricing:o Pricing policies that take advantage of situations that arrive from day to day• Restaurant Pricing:o Tax= operating income(before tax) X tax rateo Average Check: Tells us the average amount each customer will spend in the restaurant over the next year to meet our required total sales revenue objective Average check= total annual sales revenue Seats X seat turnover X operating dayso Average check by meal period: Most restaurants will have a different average check for each meal period Extremely useful to determine the average check for each meal period to supplement the total daily average check information Necessary to know what percentage of total sales revenue and seat turnover each meal is generating Average check per meal period= Meal period sales revenue (%) X total sales revenue Seats X Meal period seat turnover X Operating days  Total sales revenue = Seats X turnover X average check X days• Do this for both meals then add together and you get the overall total sales revenue for the dayo Pricing menu items: Most common method used to determine the selling price of menu items is to use cost percentage Selling price= menu item cost / cost %o Sales revenue mix: The variety of items people choose from the menu• Menu engineering:o A separate worksheet needs to be used for each meal period and each meal category (appetizers, soups, entrees, ect.)o Uses each menu items contribution margin (or gross margin)o Ignores food cost percentage since the contribution margin is presented in dollars not percentageso Defined as high or low when compared to the average contribution margin for all items soldo Popularity is also defined as high or low when comparing its sales revenue mix to the average sales mix percentageo An example of the chart and description of each column can be found on pages 258 and 259 of chapter 6o The variance and availability of a balanced menu is not insignificant from the viewpoints of the customers (book mentions that this is very important)o Classifications of menu items: Stars:• Managers would prefer to sell this menu item whenever possible• Placed in a favorable spot on the menu• Should not be removed from the menu unless there is a reason• Usually since this item is so popular, prices on this item can be raised without affect the public• Most popular item on the menu Plowhorses: • Though popular with customers, this menu item provides a low contribution margin• Should be kept on the menu, but the manager should try to raise the contribution margin without affecting demand• Lowering their prices is not a good idea• Should not be suggested or placed in a favorable spot because then it could take away from menu items that could provide a better profit• Must be analyzed very carefully Puzzles:• Higher than average contribution margin but lower than average popularity• Should generally be kept on the menu but managers should try something different when suggesting them to make them seem more appealing• Price may be reduced but not too much• If a puzzle item remains unpopular then it should be removed from the menu and replaced with a more profitable item Dogs:• Lower than average contribution margin and lower than average popularity• Should generally be replaced on the menu o Recap of menu engineering: 3 variables:• Customer demand• analysis of the menus items sales revenue mix to determine the popularity of individual menu items• item contribution margin  Any changes made to menu engineering should be reviewed Emphasize stars and reduce the dogs Menus need to be balanced because if a menu is filled with items that have a high contribution margin, that means the items price will be high and could deter customers if there are not some lower price items on the menu to choose from• Integrated pricing:o Products should not be priced independently of each othero Food and beverage prices should complement each other to achieve profit objectiveso The more food sold the higher beverage sales will be, known as derived demand• Room Rates:o Room turnovers are not like seat turnovers, whereas seat turnovers can

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FSU HFT 4471 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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