Auburn EDLD 7220 - MIDTERM-Methods of Qualitative Research

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MIDTERM: DELM114- METHODS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1. How do you gather and analyze data in qualitative research? Discuss comprehensively.Researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants.This is not an easy task, as it involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal tothem. Sometimes the experiences being explored are fresh in the participant’s mind, whereas on otheroccasions reliving past experiences may be difficult. However, the data are being collected, a primaryresponsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data. Mechanisms for suchsafeguarding must be clearly articulated to participants and must be approved by a relevant researchethics review board before the research begins. Data collection method (e.g., focus group, one-to-one interviews), the process will involve thegeneration of large amounts of data. In addition to the variety of study methodologies available, thereare also different ways of making a record of what is said and done during an interview or focus group,such as taking handwritten notes or videorecording. If the researcher is audio- or video-recording datacollection, then the recordings must be transcribed verbatim before data analysis can begin. Manyresearchers also maintain a folder of “field notes” to complement audio-taped interviews. Field notesallow the researcher to maintain and comment upon impressions, environmental contexts, behaviors,and nonverbal cues that may not be adequately captured through the audio-recording; they are typicallyhandwritten in a small notebook at the same time the interview takes place. Field notes can provideimportant context to the interpretation of audio-taped data and can help remind the researcher ofsituational factors that may be important during data analysis. Such notes need not be formal, but theyshould be maintained and secured in a similar manner to audio tapes and transcripts, as they containsensitive information and are relevant to the research.Doing qualitative research is about putting oneself in another person’s shoes and seeing the world fromthat person’s perspective, the most important part of data analysis and management is to be true to theparticipants. It is their voices that the researcher is trying to hear, so that they can be interpreted andreported on for others to read and learn from. To analyze the data, researcher may adopt aphenomenological approach because in order to understand how the participant experienced thesituation and we want to try to see the experience from that person’s perspective. It is important for theresearcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, thecoder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who haslived within middle class and upper middle-class settings. This personal history therefore forms the filterthrough which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of theanalysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating andacknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easier for readers to contextualize thework.As Patton (2015) notes, several other data analysis frameworks exist. As you develop your evaluationdesign, you should consider your evaluation questions and indicators and the most appropriate way toframe and analyze your data. A common method that evaluators use to analyze qualitative data istriangulation, which involves taking data, finding themes, coding them, and then comparing ortriangulating the data from different data sources and different data collection methods. The goal is tocollect data in a particular category, until the point of saturation, and then code and compare that data.Ultimately an evaluator would compare data from multiple methods, collected from multiple sources,collected on multiple occasions over time—for instance, observation, participant observation,interviews, focus groups, and mapping.1. Think of a qualitative study that you have read. State the ways on how it was a) planned, b)implemented, c) analyzed, and d) disseminated the findings. Observe proper citations.The study entitled “UNDERSTANDING TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF BULLYING AND EFFECTIVENESS OFAN ANTI-BULLYING POLICY.”The study was a multiple-case, holistic case study where the focus was to explore teacherperceptions of bullying and the effectiveness of an anti-bullying policy. The units of analysis, then,are the teachers, and the bounded system of interest is high school teachers in the same schooldistrict who have experience with the anti-bullying policy. These two key identifiers made the casestudy the appropriate approach. In addition, case studies have an advantage when trying to answerhow and why questions (Yin, 2009), which were vital to the study. The researcher wanted to knowhow and why teachers perceive bullying and the current policy. Further, since the focus of the studyis on teacher perceptions of a district’s anti-bullying policy, a holistic approach makes sense.Execution of this multiple-case, holistic approach used six different teachers, two from each of threedifferent high schools in the same district. Data were collected using journals, interviews, andobservations. Analysis ultimately provided a deeper understanding by identifying major themesrelated to the how and why the anti-bullying policy is or is not effective. The following researchquestions guided this study: Research Question 1: What do teachers know about bullying? ResearchQuestion 2: What are teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the current anti-bullying policy?Research Question 3: Does a gap exist between policy and implementation? Why or why not?Research Question 4: How can the current intervention/prevention policy be more effective?The researcher asked all participants to filled out the consent form, stating their willingness tocooperate in the study, and all agreed to have the interviews audio recorded. The researcheremployed triangulation, using three different sources of data, to help increase

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