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MCB 462 Integrative Neuroscience Study Questions for Exam 2 2022 Exam 2 will be on Friday April 1 in 1000 Lincoln Hall during our regular lecture period Exam 2 will cover the following study questions from material in the 13 lectures starting on Wed Feb 16 which was not covered on Exam 1 through the lecture on Monday March 28 Circadian Clocks 1 The material covered on Wed March 30 will be covered on the Final Exam 1 How does a simple half cell CPG work 2 How can different neuromodulators and their receptors cause different CPG outputs 3 How can descending inputs from the brain cause different CPG outputs in the spinal cord like forward vs backward walking 4 In words and drawings discuss locomotion in the lamprey with respect to MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 a a description of the behavior b structure of the elemental central pattern generator c d coupling within the chain of central pattern generators and the resulting function of the central pattern generator effect on locomotory pattern e The roles of 1 5 HT 2 AMPA and NMDA receptors f how the animal could coordinate the CPG chain to swim either backwards or forwards what is the trailing oscillator hypothesis 5 What is the evolutionary relationship of the lamprey swim circuitry to that of mammalian locomotion 6 How are the joints of the leg from hip to toe coordinated through the step cycle MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 7 What are the 3 mechanisms through which the nervous system can acquire novel circuitry in evolution 8 Homeostatic Plasticity Describe evidence that neurons tune their excitability and synaptic strengths b How could neurons regulate their excitability on the basis of their activity List parameters of a neuron that must be tuned to yield a functional element How might Ca2 be involved in homeostatic plasticity mechanisms How might homeostatic plasticity be involved in addiction a please c of a circuit d e 9 List two examples of conservation of function in nervous system evolution MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 10 What is exaptation Please give examples 11 How do sexuality segmentation and articulated skeletons promote evolution of complexity in brain and behavior MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 a Why may a species having two separate sexes have more potential to evolve complexity in brain and behavior than a hermaphroditic species b Why does segmentation of the body and the associated segmentation of the nervous system to innervate the separate segments promote evolution of agility and complexity in locomotion c How do articulated skeletons promote evolution of agility and complexity in lifestyle 11 Why do we have sensory systems What are the key facets of sensory transduction that enable the brain to make sense of the physical world What features do all sensory receptors share and how do they differ across sensory systems 12 How do sensory signals bridge the distance from the periphery to the central nervous system yet preserve stimulus modality information MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 13 How does the central nervous system s representation of the somatosensory system compare to the peripheral distribution of receptors for touch 14 What is a critical period and what shapes it MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 15 What determines the palette of color vision an organism possesses and where is color transduced 16 How does the organization of the retina shape the visual information that is relayed to the visual thalamus 17 How do retinal rods and cones contribute to vision 18 What strategies does the retina use to encode the complexity of the world at the level of the optic nerve MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 19 Describe the pathway transmitting light information to the brain from the initial transduction of photons at the retina to reception of this information at the visual cortex MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 20 What are the stepwise changes in light information as it is perceived by retinal ganglion cells vs area 17 of the visual cortex 21 What are the 5 taste domains and how are they tuned to physiology Compare and contrast how these taste domains are transduced by their specific sensory receptors 22 What are the roles of the orbital frontal cortex in gustatory perception 23 What is the evidence that taste domains are encoded by label lines of circuitry MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 24 What role does evaluation of chemical stimuli by the nucleus of the solitary tract NTS nucleus tractus solitarious play in ingestion of food Stimuli from what range of sources converge here 25 Describe the pathway by which you sense chemical irritants With what other sensory systems does it converge centrally 26 What do the outer and middle ear contribute to hearing Why are their contributions necessary to activating auditory receptors MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 27 How do the hair cells of the Organ of Corti contribute to both sensory transduction and signal transmission 28 How does the basilar membrane of the cochlea contribute to auditory sensory transduction MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 29 How do cochlear implants enable recipients to hear What parts of the auditory system do they bypass Why do they not fully restore hearing 30 What are the two distinct targets and functions of bipolar projections from neurons of the spiral ganglion in the cochlea 31 What does tonotopic organization mean with respect to the auditory system How is it established Where in the auditory system is it expressed 32 Discuss two mechanisms by which descending innervation from the olivocholear OC neurons to the hair cells increases the dynamic range of the auditory nerve MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 33 What fundamental principle of sensory systems shapes the characteristic frequency CF of the tuning curve of a single fiber of the auditory nerve and the response curves of neurons in the cochlear nucleus 34 What two types of information encode auditory signals within the central nervous system 35 Draw an activity pattern for each of the following seven day scenarios involving a nocturnal hamster with an endogenous circadian period of 26 hours Plot the hours of the day on the x axis and Days 1 7 on the y axis You may label the x axis in any manner that you wish so long as the distinction between midnight 12 00 AM and noon 12 00 PM is clear MCB NEURO 462 Study Guide Questions Exam 2 a a cage which is

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UIUC MCB 462 - Study Questions for Exam 2

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