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MCB 462: Integrative NeuroscienceMCB 462: Integrative NeuroscienceStudy Questions for Exam 2, 2022Exam 2 will be on Friday, April 1 in 1000 Lincoln Hall during our regular lecture period. Exam 2 will cover the following study questions from material in the 13 lectures starting on Wed., Feb. 16, which was not covered on Exam 1, through the lecture on Monday, March 28, “Circadian Clocks 1”. The material covered on Wed., March 30, will be covered on the Final Exam.1. How does a simple half-cell CPG work? 2. How can different neuromodulators and their receptors cause different CPG outputs?3. How can descending inputs from the brain cause different CPG outputs in the spinal cord (like forward vs. backward walking)?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 4. In words and drawings, discuss locomotion in the lamprey with respect to:a) a description of the behavior; b) structure of the elemental central pattern generator; c) function of the central pattern generator; d) coupling within the chain of central pattern generators and the resulting effect on locomotory pattern e) The roles of 1) 5-HT: 2) AMPA and NMDA receptors f) how the animal could coordinate the CPG chain to swim either backwards orforwards (what is the “trailing oscillator hypothesis”?). 5. What is the evolutionary relationship of the lamprey swim circuitry to that of mammalian locomotion?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 6. How are the joints of the leg, from hip to toe, coordinated through the step cycle?7. What are the 3 mechanisms through which the nervous system can acquire novel circuitry in evolution?8. Homeostatic Plasticity:a) Describe evidence that neurons tune their excitability and synaptic strengths,please.b) How could neurons regulate their excitability on the basis of their activity?c) List parameters of a neuron that must be tuned to yield a functional element of a circuit. d) How might Ca2+ be involved in homeostatic plasticity mechanisms?e) How might homeostatic plasticity be involved in addiction?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 9. List two examples of conservation of function in nervous system evolution.10.What is exaptation? Please give examples.MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 11.How do sexuality, segmentation, and articulated skeletons promote evolution of complexity in brain and behavior?a) Why may a species having two separate sexes have more potential to evolve complexity in brain and behavior than a hermaphroditic species?b) Why does segmentation of the body, and the associated segmentation of thenervous system to innervate the separate segments, promote evolution of agility and complexity in locomotion?c) How do articulated skeletons promote evolution of agility and complexity in lifestyle?11.Why do we have sensory systems? What are the key facets of sensory transduction that enable the brain to make sense of the physical world?What features do all sensory receptors share and how do they differ across sensory systems?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 12. How do sensory signals bridge the distance from the periphery to the central nervous system — yet preserve stimulus modality information?13. How does the central nervous system’s representation of the somatosensory system compare to the peripheral distribution of receptors for touch?14. What is a critical period and what shapes it?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 15. What determines the palette of color vision an organism possesses and where is color transduced?16. How does the organization of the retina shape the visual information that is relayed to the visual thalamus?17. How do retinal rods and cones contribute to vision?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 18. What strategies does the retina use to encode the complexity of the world at the level of the optic nerve?19. Describe the pathway transmitting light information to the brain, from the initial transduction of photons at the retina to reception of this information at the visual cortex.MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 20. What are the stepwise changes in light information as it is perceived by retinal ganglioncells vs. area 17 of the visual cortex?21. What are the 5 taste domains and how are they tuned to physiology? Compare and contrast how these taste domains are transduced by their specific sensory receptors.22. What are the roles of the orbital-frontal cortex in gustatory perception?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 23. What is the evidence that taste domains are encoded by label-lines of circuitry? 24.What role does evaluation of chemical stimuli by the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS = nucleus tractus solitarious) play in ingestion of food? Stimuli from what range of sources converge here? 25. Describe the pathway by which you sense chemical irritants. With what other sensory systems does it converge centrally?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 26. What do the outer and middle ear contribute to hearing? Why are their contributions necessary to activating auditory receptors?27. How do the hair cells of the Organ of Corti contribute to both sensory transduction and signal transmission?28. How does the basilar membrane of the cochlea contribute to auditory sensory transduction?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 29. How do cochlear implants enable recipients to hear? What parts of the auditory systemdo they bypass? Why do they not fully restore hearing?30. What are the two distinct targets and functions of bipolar projections from neurons of the spiral ganglion in the cochlea?31. What does tonotopic organization mean with respect to the auditory system? How is it established? Where in the auditory system is it expressed?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 32. Discuss two mechanisms by which descending innervation from the olivocholear (OC) neurons to the hair cells increases the dynamic range of the auditory nerve.33. What fundamental principle of sensory systems shapes the characteristic frequency (CF) of the tuning curve of a single fiber of the auditory nerve and the response curves of neurons in the cochlear nucleus?34. What two types of information encode auditory signals within the central nervous system?MCB/NEURO 462Study Guide Questions - Exam 2 35. Draw an activity pattern forIeachIof the followingIseven-dayIscenarios involving a nocturnal hamster with an endogenous circadian period of 26 hours. Plot the hours of the day on the x-axis and

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