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Review for Final Personality KIN 352 Spring 2022 Psychological Core Typical responses Role Related Behavior Mental strategies used by successful athletes Successful athletes practice specific plans for dealing with adversity during competition to enhance competition They practice routines for dealing with unusual circumstances and distractions before and during a competition Complete concentration on the upcoming event blocking out irrelevant events and thoughts Use several mental rehearsals before competition Focus completely on what is controllable Develop detailed competition plans Regulate arousal and anxiety o o o o o o o o o o o o Motivation o Direction Intensity Trait Centered View Situational Centered View Interactional Centered view 3 approaches to motivation know the difference between 5 guidelines for building motivation know examples of Consider both situations and traits in motivating people Understand there are multiple motives for involvement Change environment o o o o Motivation is influenced by behavior and actions o Utilizing behavior modifications Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards Arousal Anxiety Stress be able to distinguish the difference Competitiveness o o Win orientation Goal orientation o Viewing competition as a process o o o Objective Competitive situation Subjective competitive situation Response Relationship between arousal and performance Inverted U Hypothesis SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Wasted emotions that humans beings express worry and guilt SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Competition and Cooperation defined and distinguished Guidelines for using positive reinforcement know why o Consequences Reinforcement o Positive and negative o o o o Choose effective reinforcers Schedule the reinforcer effectively Reward appropriate behavior Provide performance feedback Using Punishments explained Support for punishment Criticisms o o o Making it effective The Sandwich Approach effective communication SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Group and Team dynamics o Recognize the difference between groups and teams Group development Linear Perspective Group structures Group roles Group Norms Effective team Climate o o o o o o o o Social Proximity Distinctiveness Fairness Similarity Task interdependence Ringelmann Effect SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Social loafing SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Building team cohesion o What coaches and leaders can do o What group members can do o o o o Prescribed leader Emergent leader Relationship oriented leader Task oriented leader Leadership difference between leaders and managers SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Arousal Regulation You must increase your awareness of your psychological states before you can control your thoughts and feeling How individuals cope with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety they have Individuals who view their anxiety as debilitative are typically limited in their use of coping strategies Individuals who perceived their anxiety as facilitative typically perform better and cope more effectively with anxiety Anxiety Reduction Techniques Somatic Anxiety Body Cognitive Anxiety Mind Somatic body Anxiety Reduction Techniques o o o Progressive Relaxation Breath Control Biofeedback Cognitive mind Anxiety Reduction Techniques SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Relaxation Response quiet the mind concentrate reduce muscle tension Autogenic Training sensations of warmth and heaviness A quiet Place Comfortable Position 1 2 3 Mental device mantra A passive attitude 4 In Order 1 Heaviness in the extremities 2 Warmth in the extremities 3 4 5 6 Regulation of cardiac activity Regulation of breathing Abdominal warmth Cooling of the forehead Systematic Desensitization know what it is Anecdotal tips for dealing with stress o o o o o o Smile when you feel tension coming Have fun enjoy the day Set up stressful situations in practice Slow down and take your time Stay focused on the present Come prepared with a good game plan Arousal Inducing Techniques Increase breathing rate Act energized Use of mood words and positive statements Yelling and shouting o o o o o Music o Energizing imagery o Complete a precompetitive workout Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance but must be implemented correctly Goals will not be effective unless they are tied to specific and realistic strategies for achieving them Goals should be set individually in the beginning until the individual gets more skilled at the process Goal Setting Goals objective vs subjective Why goal setting works o o o o o o o Outcome Performance Process Goals direct attention to important elements of the skill being performed Goals mobilize performers efforts Goals prolong performers persistence Goals foster the development of new learning strategies Types of goals SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Principles of goal setting SHORT ANSWER QUESTION Set specific goals o Set moderately difficult but realistic goals o Set long short term goals o Set performance process and outcome goals o Set practice competition goals o Record your goals o Develop Goal achievement strategies o o Must consider personalities and motivations o o o Provide goal support Foster individual s goal commitment Provide evaluation and feedback Common problems in goal setting o o o o o o Convincing students athletes and exercisers to set goals Failing to set short term goals Setting too many goals too soon Failing to adjust goals Failing to recognize individual differences Not providing follow up and evaluation Concentration Concentration 4 parts Focusing on the relevant cues in the environment selective attention 1 2 Maintain that focus over time attentional focus 3 4 Awareness of the situation and performance errors situational Awareness Shifting attentional focus when necessary Attentional focus Types SHORT ANSWER QUESTION o o o o Broad attentional focus perceive several occurrences very quickly Narrow attentional focus responding to only one or two cues External attentional focus directs attention outward to an object Internal attentional focus directed inward to thoughts and feelings Problems with attention o Internal distractors Attending to past events Attending to future events Choking under pressure Overanalyzing body mechanics Fatigue Inadequate motivation o External distractors Visual Auditory Self Talk 3 categories Improving concentration o o o o o o o o o Positive motivational Instructional Negative Use simulations in Practice Use cue words Use nonjudgmental thinking Establish routines Develop competitive plans

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