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ITWRBS India – Land of Mystery, second largest religionin the world2 Hindu Races- Aryans (Nothern People)- Dravidians (Southern People)Two Sacred Texts1. Shruti – “what is heard”, text containingrevealed knowledge.2. Smriti – “what is remembered”, containingremembered knowledge.What is Shruti? - The Vedas – writings about attainmentof wisdom of the true nature of reality1. Rig Veda – hymn knowledge2. Yayur Veda – wisdom and sacrifice3. Sama Veda – chant knowledge4. Atharva Veda – Aryan priest wisdom What is Smriti?- Secondary source that contain truthsthat may change over time1. Itihasas – Ramayana and mahabrata2. Puranas – discussion of heavenly bodies3. Dharma Shastra – book of laws 4. Later Sutras – poetic storiesThe Three Major Gods of Hinduism/HinduReligion- Brahma (creator)- Vishnu (preserver)- Shiva (destroyer)Five Caste Systems- Brahmins – priests and teachers- Kshatriyas – warriors and rulers- Vaishyas – farmers, traders andmerchants- Shudras – labourers- Dalits (outcasters) – street sweepers,latrine cleanersThe Four YogasYoga – means union with the divine or unionwith brahman- Karma Yoga – path of action- Bhakti Yogo – path of devotion- Jnana Yoga – path of knowledge- Raja Yoga – path of meditationDemoninations of Buddhism1. Theravada 2. Mahayana3. Vajrayana4. Tibetan5. Chan6. Zen7. Tendai8. NicherenSiddhartha Gautama: Buddha- Also known as “Buddha” or theenlightened/awakened one- In Tradition: Buddha as a Teacher- In Religion: Buddha as a GodBuddhist Sacred Texts- Tripitaka (Three Baskets)1. VinayaPitaka (Discipline Basket) – livingin monastic life – morality.2. SuttaPitaka (Saying Basket) –theological sermons of Buddha3. AbhidhammaPitaka (Special Teachings)– life and works of BuddhaThe Four Noble Truths1. Suffering Exists – suffering can bephysical, emotional and mental.Physical suffering includes physical painbrought about the old age, sickness anddeath. 2. Suffering arises from craving/desire –creates emptiness within oneself, inthat in desiring for something, onecreates a lack that one needs to fill up.]3. Eliminating craving eliminates suffering– the termination of suffering requirestermination of craving4. The way to eliminate craving andconsequently suffering is by thefollowing eightfold pathThe Eightfold Path1. Right Understanding – the true nature of things and knowledge2. Right Thought – thoughts and motives that are pure and not selfish3. Right Speech – speaking honestly and kindly4. Right Action – doing actions that do nothurt people and animals5. Right work/livelihood – pursuing a means of livelihood6. Right Effort – improving oneself while avoiding extremes 7. Right Contemplation – cultivating mental states that bring inner peace8. Right Meditation – focusing ones energies on the right and positive thingsNirvana: Everlasting Happiness- It is freedom and liberation from craving and suffering. China’s Classics: Confucian PhilosophyChinese Empire’s Dynasties- Xia (2070-BCE)- Shang (1600-1046 BCE)- Zhou (1046-256 BCE)- Han (206 BCE-8 CE)- Sui (581-618 CE)- Tang (618-907)- Yuan (1271-1568)- Ming (1568-1644)- Qing (1641-1911)China: The Awakening DragonConfucianism – originally used by the Jesuits to refer to the Ru Tradition, this generally meant “the tradition of the scholars.”Chou Dynasty: The Age of Philosophy- Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius) – recognizedfounder of Confucianism and widelyaccepted as a religion (Ethical Context)and philosophy (Practical Wisdom).The Five Confucian Classics1. Book of History – historical documents2. Books of Poetry – collections of poems3. Book of Changes – astrology4. Book of Rites – rules and courtceremonies5. Spring and Autumn Annals – records ofstate of LuThe Four Books of Confucius 1. The Analects – speeches of Confucius2. Great Learning – education, moralityand politics3. Doctrine of the Mean – relationsbetween temporal and spiritual4. Mencius – the second Confucian thinkerDoctrines and Beliefs- The Golden Rule: “Do not do untoothers what you would not have themdo unto you.”- Tian Belief: “The idea of heaven andmoral order for the family, the stateand the world.”- Rectification of Names – the peopleand order of the society:1. The Ruler – subject2. Father – son3. Elder – younger4. Husband – wife 5. Friends – upright senseThe Confucian Virtues 1. Ren or Benevolence/humaneness – it isdiscipline following social hierarchy,family relations and showingcompassion to others.2. Li/Discipline – includes proper ways ofspeaking, behaving, dressing andothers, in given social situations.3. Shu/Reciprocity – “do not impose onothers what you yourself do notdesire.” This is the ability to feel whatthe right thing to do is.4. Xiao/Filial Piety – doing things thatshow love, respect and devotion to themembers of one’s family. It alsoincludes the celebration of ancestralrites: offerings and prayers. 5. Xin/Fidelity – “by keeping one’s wordand being faithful for nation building.”Chou Dynasty: DaoismDaoism/Taoism – is another world religion thatis native in china- Founder: Lao Tzu “Old Master”- Book: Dao de Jing “Book of the Way”Daoism – means “the way” or can be spoken of;to achieve long life and immortality.- Daoism does not have a god- Universe and the Dao- Superstitious BeliefsThe Beliefs and Views of Daoism- Dao – the way of nature- Humility – avoiding competition withothers- Tai Chi – a popular Chinese form ofexercise and martial arts’ or self-discipline- Feng Sui – is generally a system ofharmonizing everyone with thesurrounding environment- Alchemy – it also referred to creatingpotions that could cure disease orconfer supernatural powersThe Way and Harmony1. The De – refers to the power to bringthe Dao into realization and sense of“moral character” and the “power toact”2. Wu Wei – if we are just going with flowof nature, our actions are effortless.Just follow the natural course of thingsto survive3. The three Jewels (Buddhism/Daoism)- Simplicity in action- Patience with friends

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