IET Lucknow ELS 12 - Earth and Life Science - Reviewer

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Earth and Life ScienceDNA – Molecule that serves as the blueprint of lifeDevelopment – arrangement of complexity of structure and functions in living systemsEvolution – relative change in size and maturation of structural and functional being of an organismCloning – process of producing an organism of the same typeMutation – evolutionary modifications of an organismCell – fundamental unit of lifeEnergy – capability of a living system to do workOrganelles – specialized structure within a living cellEndomembrane system – group of membrane and organelles that work together to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteinsEndosymbiont Theory – theory of the origin of the eukaryotic cellsFluid-mosaic model – explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranesSemi-permeable – allowing certain substances to pass through it but not othersBiology – study of life; came from 2 greek words:a.) Bios – lifeb.) Logos – study ofMajor division of biologya.) Zoology – study of animalsb.) Botany – study of plantsc.) Microbiology – study of microorganismsCytology – study of cellsEcology – relationship of organisms with their environmentTaxonomy – names and classifications of organismsAnatomy – structures and parts of organismsPhysiology – functions and parts of organismsEmbryology – formation and development of organismsBiochemistry – biochemical composition of organismGenetics – heredity and variationEvolution – origin and differentiation of organismsVirology – study of virusesMycology – study of fungiOrnithology – study of birdsHerpetology – study of reptilesMammalogy – study of mammalsPathology – study of diseasesEntomology – study of insectsParasitology – study of parasitesEpidemiology – study of spread of diseaseMolecular biology – molecular analysis of living organismsGenomics – focuses on the genome of an organismProteomics – focuses on the proteins of an organismImmunology/Endocrinology – focuses on the study of immune systemBioinformatics – biological data using computer programsBiotechnology – focuses on the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make productsImportance of biology1. Societal – public health, medicines, environment crisis2. Philosophical – evolution, genetics3. Personal – to be informedDivine creation – life on earth was put by divine forcesSpontaneous generation (Abiogenesis) – Living things arise from non-living matterDisapproving Spontaneous generation Approving Spontaneous generationFrancesco Redi (1668)– experiment with flies and wide mouth jars containing meatJohn Needham (745) – showed that microorganisms flourished in various soups that has been exposed to airLazaro Spallanzani (1765) – experiment with microbes and wide mouth jars containing brothCharacteristic of life1. All living things are made up of cellsUnicellular organisms – made up of single cellsMulticellular organisms – made up of many cells2. All living things can reproduceAsexual reproduction – single parentSexual Reproduction – two parent; involves male and female sex cells3. All living things obtain and use energyMetabolism – Anabolism + CatabolismAnabolism – building upCatabolism – breaking down4. All living things contain homeostasis Homeostasis – process of keeping the internal environment stable/balance/constant5. Organisms pass along heredity traitsHeredity – reason why children resemble their parentsMutations – change DNA code and can be passed from generations to generation6. Organisms grow and developGrowth – grow bigger in sizeDevelopment – change physical or psychological7. All living things respond to their environmentInternal stimuli – signal comes from inside the organismExternal stimuli – signal comes from outside the organismOrganism react to stimuli:– Light– Temperature– Odor– Sound– Gravity– Heat– Water– Pressure8. All living things adapt to their environmentAdaptation – process that enables organism to become better suited to their environmentAutotrophs – organisms that make their own foodHeterotrophs – organisms that cannot make their own foodAdenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – store smaller amounts of energyAdenosine Diphosphate (ADP) – receives the energy released by the ATPATP + Water → ADP + Inorganic phosphate + EnergyChlorophyll – green pigments that absorb all wavelengths of lightPhycobilins – pigment found in red algaeChloroplast – cell organelles found in plantsGranum – light reaction occursThylakoids – each granum is made up of sac-like membranes Photosystems – groups of molecules that are involved in photosynthesisStroma – space found outside the thylakoidsPhotosynthesis formula6CO2 + 12H2O →LIGHT→C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2Carbon dioxide+water → Light → glucose + water + oxygen2 types of photosynthesisa. Light dependent reactionsb. Light independent reactionsCalvin Cyclea. Carbon fixationb. Reduction reactionc. Regeneration of RuBPCellular Respiration – cells release the stored energy in glucose to make ATPStages of Cellular Respiration1. Glycolysis2. The Krebs CycleElectron Transport Chain

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IET Lucknow ELS 12 - Earth and Life Science - Reviewer

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