Xavier ECO 809 - Introduction to Nationalism in India Class 10
Course Eco 809-
Pages 8

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Introduction to Nationalism in India Class 10In the chapter Nationalism in India class 10, it is described as the feeling when peopleof a country develop a sense of common belonging and are united in a common thread.Their struggles unite them, and they tend to form a common identity. It coversnationalism in many parts of the world like Germany, France, Britain, Vietnam, India, andmany others. Here are the Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes:World War 1We see the growth of the national movement of India from World War 1. Britisherscolonized people of India and many other nations like Vietnam, so they had a commonenemy which tied them together to fight against British rule in India. During the time ofWorld War 1, India, being the colony of Britain, faced many economic and politicalproblems.● First of all, to wage war, a large sum of money was needed, which was derived byintroducing customs duties and income tax on Indians.● Secondly, India was forced to supply men as soldiers to the British army, whichcaused widespread anger among people.● Many parts of our country faced shortages of food supply and spread of theinfluenza epidemic, which added fuel to the fire to fight against the colonialgovernment.When Gandhi came to India in 1915 from South Africa, people saw him as a messiahwho would end their suffering. From 1915 to 1916, on the advice of his political guru,Gopal Krishna Gokhale, he visited many places in India to get first-hand experience ofpeople’s problems.SatyagrahaAccording to the NCERT 10 class history book, the literal meaning of Satyagraha is=Satya (truth) + Agraha (hold on to truth). Three Satyagrahas launched by Gandhi Ji atthe regional level are the following:● Champaran- In 1916, he launched first Satyagraha in Champaran, Bihar where heinspired people to protest against tinkathia system (repressive plantationsystem)● Kheda- In 1917, he organized Satyagraha in the Kheda district of Gujarat tosupport the poor peasants who were demanding relaxation in revenue collection.● Ahmedabad- In 1918, he organized Satyagraha for cotton mill workers.Gandhi Ji launched all these movements by following two principles that are truth andnon-violence. He believed that if the idea is pure, then a satyagrahi does not need to useforce. He was a practitioner of non-violence and believed that one could win any battleby following the Dharma of truth and non-violence. He followed this Dharma in thewhole process of nationalism in India, as covered in 10 class history books.Also Read: Branches of HistoryRowlatt Act of 1919After these three Satyagraha at the regional level, Gandhi decided to launch anationwide satyagraha. Still, as Newton’s third law says, every action has an equal andopposite reaction, the Imperial legislative council passed the Rowlatt act in 1919 whichgave Britishers enormous power to suppress political activities and put politicalprisoners behind bars without any trial for two years. In this response, Gandhiji launcheda hartal on 6 April. It was the beginning of India workers’ national movement went onstrike, shops were closed down, railways and telegraph lines were disrupted. As a result,local leaders were picked up, and Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi. Martial lawwas imposed in many places in India.On 13 April, Amritsar people gathered to participate in the Baisakhi festival, unaware ofmartial law. When General Dyer came to know about this gathering, he fired upon peopleand killed a large number of them to create fear and a feeling of awe. It is marked as theblack day in the history of the national movement of India.As stated in the chapter nationalism in India class 10, Gandhi was always a staunchsupporter of non-violence, so after the incident of Jallianwala Bagh, he immediatelycalled off the hartal.Non Cooperation and KhilafatIn Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes, it is mentioned that Gandhiji realized that tolaunch a successful mass movement at the national level, Hindus and Muslims shouldbe brought together. At the Calcutta session of Congress in 1920, He decided to launchthe Non-cooperation movement with the Khilafat movement. Khilafat movement waslaunched by two Muslim brothers- Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. To defend thetemporal power of Khalifa in Muslim, the idea of bringing Hindu and Muslims togetherwas one of the biggest milestones in the process of nationalism in India.Credit:TutorialspointNon-Cooperation Movement in StagesNationalism in India Class 10 Notes ideally described how Gandhiji made people realizethat British rule sustained in India for so long because of our political and economiccooperation with them. So he proposed that people boycott foreign goods, clothes,surrender government titles, schools, colleges, law courts, civil services, and councilelections. Initially, Congress members were reluctant to boycott council elections, butlater in the congress session of 1920, they decided to adopt the Non-Cooperationprogram.In the 10 class history NCERT Book, pictures show that people from diversebackgrounds participated in this movement. Thousands of teachers, headmasters,lawyers, and students refused to go to colonial institutions and altogether boycotted it.Foreign goods were boycotted and burnt. Liquor shops were picketed, which led to thedramatic dropping of its import according to the 10 class history book of class 10 socialscience, Gandhi Ji encouraged people to make their own clothes using Charkha.Charkha is the symbol of self-reliance and traditional Indian handicrafts’ potential.According to the class 10 social science history book Peasants in Awadh, under theguidance of Baba Ramchandra, they participated in the Non-cooperation movement byrefusing to pay taxes and beg.● They attacked houses of talukdars and merchants to end the repressive system.● Tribal people were affected because after the introduction of forest laws, theircustomary rights were denied.● They revolted against this brutal system under the guidance of the tribal leaderAlluri Sitaram Raju.● Plantation workers were living in a very repressive state and were forced to stayat a confined border under the Inland Emigration act. To end this state, theyparticipated in this revolt.● But in 1922, Chauri Chaura Satyagrahis attacked a police station that claimedsome police officers’ lives. When Gandhiji heard this violent act, he called off themovement because it took on an intense color.Civil Disobedience MovementA crucial milestone

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Xavier ECO 809 - Introduction to Nationalism in India Class 10

Course: Eco 809-
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