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Instructor Dr Mahdi NorouziSeptember 23, 2021AbstractThis lab was done to show how different engineering materials approximate densities compare to one another. Also, how the specific strengths and specific moduli of different types of engineering materials compare to one another. And then to also see how the cost per unit strengths compare to one another. For this lab the team was given 14 known samples of engineering materials to determine the volume and approximate densities of those materials. Then to also determine how specific strengths and specific modulus and how they compare to one another. Then to also determine how costs per unit strengths of the different engineering materials compare to one another.IntroductionLab Module 5 Approximate Densities and Specific Properties of Engineering MaterialsByAdam BrewSchool of Engineering Grand Valley State UniversityLab ReportEGR 251- Material Science & Engineering LabSection 102Instructor Dr Mahdi NorouziSeptember 23, 2021AbstractThis lab was done to show how different engineering materials approximate densitiescompare to one another. Also, how the specific strengths and specific moduli of different typesof engineering materials compare to one another. And then to also see how the cost per unitstrengths compare to one another. For this lab the team was given 14 known samples ofengineering materials to determine the volume and approximate densities of those materials.Then to also determine how specific strengths and specific modulus and how they compare toone another. Then to also determine how costs per unit strengths of the different engineeringmaterials compare to one another. IntroductionThe overarching objectives of this laboratory module were to first introduce students tothe concepts of physical and mechanical properties of engineering materials. Also, to introducethe concepts of specific strength and modulus as in important means of comparing engineeringmaterials for structural applications. Then to enable students to understand why engineeringmaterials with the highest strength and elastic modulus are not necessarily the best selections forsome structural applications. Also, to be able to experimentally determine the approximatedensities of different types of engineering materials. Then to compare the specific strengths andmoduli of different engineering materials. And to finally relate specific properties and cost ofengineering materials to their suitability for transportation applications.Experimental ProcedureThe samples of engineering materials were measured for length and diameter usingdigital calipers. Then the volume of the specimen was calculated using equation 1:V =¿where V is the volume of the sample, d is the measured diameter, and h is the measured height ofthe sample. Then the digital scale was used to measure the mass of each sample. Then theapproximate density of each specimen was calculated using equation 2:ρ=mV(2)Where p is the calculated approximate density, and m is the mass of the given sample, and V isthe volume of the sample. Then using the values in table 1.1, the specific yield and tensilestrengths (i.e. strength to weight ratio) and the specific modulus (i.e. elastic modulus to weightratio) were calculated for each engineering material sample using equations 3, 4 and 5:σys=σysm(3)σt s=σt sm(4)E=Em(4)where, σys is the specific yield strength, σys is yield strength of the material , m is the mass of thegiven sample, σt s is the specific tensile strength, σt s is tensile strength of the material, E is thespecific elastic modulus, E is elastic modulus of the material. Then the cost per unit yieldstrength and cost per unit tensile strength for each material were calculated and compared. Thecost per unit strength can be calculated by dividing the cost per kilogram of the material by thespecific strength associated with the material.Results The given values of yield strength, tensile strength ,elastic modulus, and cost per kg forthe engineering materials to be studied can be seen in Table 1.1. The measured values of length,diameter, and mass along with the calculated values of density and volume can be seen in Table1.2. Then using the values from table 1.1 and table 1.2 were used to calculate the values ofSpecific Yield Strength ,Specific Tensile Strength, Specific Modulus, Cost per unit YieldStrength, and Cost per unit Tensile Strength can be seen in table 1.3. Then table 1.4 shows thetheoretical values of density and experimental calculated density and the percent error betweenthem. The uncertainty in the measurements taken are 0.05mm in the calipers, 0.05g in the scale,and .25 mm in the ruler.Table 1.1 Mechanical properties and relative costs of engineering material samplesMaterialYield Strength(kPa) Tensile Strength (kpa) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Cost ($/kg)Titanium 1.70E+05 2.40E+05 1.03E+08 46.5Al alloy 6061 - O 5.50E+04 1.24E+05 6.90E+07 5.8Al alloy 6061 - T6 2.76E+05 3.10E+05 6.90E+07 5.8Al alloy 2024 - O 7.50E+04 1.85E+05 7.24E+07 10Al alloy 2024 - T3 3.45E+05 4.85E+05 7.24E+07 10Brass 1.13E+05 3.33E+05 1.10E+08 4.2Steel (C1018) 2.95E+05 3.95E+05 2.07E+08 0.55Ductile Cast Iron 2.76E+05 4.14E+05 1.69E+08 1.6Pure Cu - hot rolled 6.90E+04 2.20E+05 1.15E+08 5.5Nylon 6,6 6.90E+04 9.45E+04 2.69E+06 9.4Polycarbonate 6.21E+04 6.76E+04 2.38E+06 8.5Polypropylene 3.41E+04 3.62E+04 1.35E+06 1.2ABS DNE 4.50E+04 2.40E+06 10.1Polyvinyl Chloride 4.28E+04 4.62E+04 3.30E+06 2.1PTFE DNE 2.76E+04 5.00E+05 38High alumina DNE 4.17E+05 3.80E+08 1.5Table 1.2 Measured values of engineering samplesMaterial Length (m) Diameter (m) Volume (m3) Mass (kg) Density (kg/m3 )Titanium 0.0146 0.0128 0.000001879 0.0083 4417.895266Al alloy 6061 - O 0.0187 0.0254 0.000009475 0.0253 2670.063562Al alloy 6061 - T6 0.0187 0.0254 0.000009475 0.0253 2670.063562Al alloy 2024 - O 0.0214 0.0254 0.000010844 0.0298 2748.180009Al alloy 2024 - T3 0.0214 0.0254 0.000010844 0.0298 2748.180009Brass 0.0118 0.0254 0.000005979 0.0504 8429.294251Steel (C1018) 0.0248 0.0317 0.000019573 0.1532 7827.060282Ductile Cast Iron 0.0152 0.0275 0.000009028 0.0637 7055.707612Pure Cu - hot rolled 0.0116 0.0254 0.000005878 0.0518 8812.810992Nylon 6,6 0.0489 0.0255 0.000024973 0.0284 1137.206252Polycarbonate 0.0478 0.0254 0.000024221 0.0289 1193.198315Polypropylene 0.0416 0.0267 0.000023292 0.0209 897.305958ABS 0.0486 0.0254 0.000024626 0.0254 1031.430887Polyvinyl Chloride

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