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Catastrophe is a much bigger problem than a crisis True Disasters are characterized by the disruption they cause to people s daily routine activities True A disaster is Larger than an emergency Tsunamis count as a Hydrological hazard made of water The Richter scale is used to classify the strength of earthquakes An agent generated demand includes efforts to respond to response generated demands False From least bad to worst 1 Accidents 2 Crisis 3 Emergencies 4 Disasters 5 Calamities 6 Catastrophes Disasters Deadly destructive and disruptive events that occur when a hazard interacts with human vulnerability Hazard Is an agent or threat that includes natural technological human induced agents such as earthquake industrial explosion or terrorist attack Vulnerability refers to the proneness of people to disasters or a limited ability to deal with disasters Emergency management The study of how humans and their institutions deal with hazards vulnerabilities and the events that result for their interactions Mitigation Prevention and loss reduction Preparedness Implies efforts to increase readiness Response Action to save lives or protect property Recovery Is action to return life support systems to normal or improved levels Emergency managers Public servants who help jurisdictions reduce the liabilities that lead to disasters and endeavor to build capabilities to deal with threats First responders Public safety personnel such as police firefighters and EMT s Mass shootings panic flight riots terrorism war Agent generated demand The needs made evident by the hazard Response generated demands The needs made evident as individuals organizations and communities attempt to meet agent generated demand Normalcy generated demands The pressures to get things back to pre disaster conditions Mitigation generated demands The desires to learn from the disaster and avoid making similar mistakes in the future Preparedness generated demands The expectations that the mistakes made evident in response and recovery will not be repeated in the future Improvements in planning and the allocation of additional resources fall into this category Public sector A segment of society that is made up of government offices departments and agencies Private sector Part of society that includes businesses and corporations Non profit sector The division of society that is comprised of humanitarian charitable religious and voluntary organizations Citizens National Disaster Recovery Framework A guide to enable effective recovery in disaster stricken areas It provides disaster recovery managers with a flexible structure to restore affected communities National Protection Framework Describes what the whole community should do to safeguard against acts of terrorism natural disasters and other threats or hazards Established organizations Group that perform routine tasks with existing structures Expanding organizations Groups that perform routine tasks with new structures Extending organizations Groups that perform nonroutine tasks with existing structures Emergent organizations Groups of individuals who work together to perform common goals but do not have a formalized organization Price gouging Atypical to the vast majority of situations Role or post abandonment is extremely rare after a disaster Shock does not occur among the vast majority of victims Reporting is frequently incorrect after a disaster Martial law has never been imposed in the US in the United States after a disaster Emergency management intrinsically connects to military operations and expanded as disasters and crises called for it Traditional Model Need to focus on war disasters belief that government is the most reliable actor belief that it is best to operate under hierarchy and with standard operating procedures emergency management is concerned with first responder issues only Strengths War is devastating government is an important actor SOP s and hierarchy help protect emergency personnel a desire to manage the situation effectively Weaknesses Ignores other disasters neglects important actors over reliance on SOPs that may not work in each situation fails to recognize order in chaos relies on top down communications Professional Model Actual or perceived limitations of the traditional model led to the development of the professional model Strengths Takes an all hazards approach acknowledges many actors stresses integration of activities of many actors allows for improvisation accepts a broad picture of disasters Weaknesses Downplays unique difficulties of wartime disasters downplays the role of government and first responders fail to recognize importance of hierarchical leadership overlooks benefits of SOPs fail to see details of field level operations Emergency Operations Plan Describe how the jurisdiction might respond to a disaster The diverse hazards and detection methods are included along with severity ranking Emergency Operations Center Central location where leaders can gather information discuss opinions make decisions disseminate policy mobilize resources and communicate with involved parties Partial Activation Some staff Full Activation All staff present Warnings Advanced notifications that allow people to take measures to protect themselves and their property Horizontal evacuation Moving away from a problem Vertical evacuation Moving up and away from a problem or down and away like higher ground in a tsunami Human Behavior in SAR Participation of untrained volunteers informal or formal organization of responsibilities use of any equipment available preference for certain victims in time professional SAR teams will arrive on the scene victims will cooperate with each other and with rescuers professional teams may or may not work with emergent groups Issues to consider Tools and equipment situational awareness rescuer needs time medical care professionalization Disaster has to occur with a local level response local level needs additional resources state responds governor declares disaster if additional support is needed fema regional representative is deployed regional rep requests federal declaration fema sends it to department of homeland security then president declares disaster Conducting SAR Gather facts assess damage consider probabilities assess your situation establish rescue priorities make decisions develop a rescue plan take action evaluate your progress Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams Groups of private citizens

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VCU HSEP 302 - HSEP 302

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