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Alexa EspinozaChapter 12 Multiple Choice Questions1) C2) B3) B4) E5) C6) B7) B8) A9) E10) E11) D12) B13) A14) C15) C16) D17) D18) B19) B20) DFree Response:1) Fungi have been used as a tool for producing various types of secondary metabolites byproviding various nutrients under various laboratory conditions.2) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from engulfed prokaryotesthat once existed as separate organisms.3) The selective characteristics of protists is that they have other organelles that aremembrane-bound. Many protists live in aquatic environments, and the majority of themare motile, or able to move. Protists have intricate life cycles that can include both sexualand asexual reproduction.4) The evolutionary history of prokaryotes is that they were the first forms of cellular life onEarth, existing for billions of years before plants and animals.5) The basic structure of a typical prokaryote is that prokaryotic cells are much smaller thaneukaryotic cells, lack a nucleus, and are devoid of organelles. A cell wall surrounds allprokaryotic cells.6) Many protists are pathogenic parasites that need to infect other organisms in order tosurvive and reproduce. Human malaria, African sleeping sickness, and waterbornegastroenteritis are all caused by protist parasites.7) The essential function of saprobic protists is to return inorganic nutrients to the soil andwater.8) Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are non-vascular, non-motile, andheterotrophic. They can be unicellular or filamentous in nature. They reproducethrough the use of spores. Fungi exhibit the alternation of generationphenomenon. Fungi do not have chlorophyll and thus cannot performphotosynthesis.9) Plague is caused by the flea-borne bacteria Yersinia pestis, which wasresponsible for at least three human plague pandemics, the Justinian plague, theBlack Death, and the third plague.10) The uses of prokaryotes in food processing are biotechnology in which GMObacteria produce pharmaceuticals fermented foods that are produced by bacteria(wine, cheese) and bioremediation which is use of prokaryotes to clean uppollution.11) The endosymbiotic theory is a theory where eukaryotes are a product of one cellengulfing another which forms chloroplast and mitochondria.12) Fungal parasites spread diseases and form relationships with other organisms,in which the fungus benefits from the association while harming the host (humanbeings and plants).13) The importance of fungi to the environment is that fungi are importantdecomposers in ecosystems, breaking down dead plants and animals intosmaller molecules that can be used by other ecosystem members.14) Fungi, as food, play a role in human nutrition as mushrooms, as well as asfermentation agents in the production of bread, cheeses, alcoholic beverages,and a variety of other food

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CSUSM GES 102 - Homework 12

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