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Alexa Espinoza Chapter 12 Multiple Choice Questions 1 C 2 B 3 B 4 E 5 C 6 B 7 B 8 A 9 E 10 E 11 D 12 B 13 A 14 C 15 C 16 D 17 D 18 B 19 B 20 D Free Response 1 Fungi have been used as a tool for producing various types of secondary metabolites by providing various nutrients under various laboratory conditions 2 Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from engulfed prokaryotes that once existed as separate organisms 3 The selective characteristics of protists is that they have other organelles that are membrane bound Many protists live in aquatic environments and the majority of them are motile or able to move Protists have intricate life cycles that can include both sexual and asexual reproduction 4 The evolutionary history of prokaryotes is that they were the first forms of cellular life on Earth existing for billions of years before plants and animals 5 The basic structure of a typical prokaryote is that prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells lack a nucleus and are devoid of organelles A cell wall surrounds all prokaryotic cells 6 Many protists are pathogenic parasites that need to infect other organisms in order to survive and reproduce Human malaria African sleeping sickness and waterborne gastroenteritis are all caused by protist parasites 7 The essential function of saprobic protists is to return inorganic nutrients to the soil and water 8 Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are non vascular non motile and heterotrophic They can be unicellular or filamentous in nature They reproduce through the use of spores Fungi exhibit the alternation of generation phenomenon Fungi do not have chlorophyll and thus cannot perform photosynthesis 9 Plague is caused by the flea borne bacteria Yersinia pestis which was responsible for at least three human plague pandemics the Justinian plague the Black Death and the third plague 10 The uses of prokaryotes in food processing are biotechnology in which GMO bacteria produce pharmaceuticals fermented foods that are produced by bacteria wine cheese and bioremediation which is use of prokaryotes to clean up pollution 11 The endosymbiotic theory is a theory where eukaryotes are a product of one cell engulfing another which forms chloroplast and mitochondria 12 Fungal parasites spread diseases and form relationships with other organisms in which the fungus benefits from the association while harming the host human beings and plants 13 The importance of fungi to the environment is that fungi are important decomposers in ecosystems breaking down dead plants and animals into smaller molecules that can be used by other ecosystem members 14 Fungi as food play a role in human nutrition as mushrooms as well as as fermentation agents in the production of bread cheeses alcoholic beverages and a variety of other food preparations

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CSUSM GES 102 - Homework 12

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