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Urinary SystemOrgans:- Kidneyso Production of urine by nephrons- Ureterso Transfers urine from kidney to bladder- Urinary Bladdero Stores urine then empties through urethra- UrethraTissue Surrounding Kidney- Renal Capsule: Barrier to infectiono Dense Irregularo Some smooth muscle + elastic fibers- Adipose Capsule: Cushions kidney- Renal Fasciao Fibrous C.TInternal Kidney Anatomy- Renal Cortexo Contains nephrons- Renal Medullao Urine collecting tubes- Renal Pelvis: Continuous with uretero Walls have smooth muscles to move urineKidneys: Nephrons in Cortex- Blood processing unitso Carry out processes that form urineNephron Anatomy: Glomerulus- Tuft of capillaries associated with renal tubule - Specialized for filtrationGlomerulus: Histology- Connective tissue replaced by mesangial cells- Basal lamina surrounds capillariesNephron Anatomy: Renal Tubule- Proximal Tubuleo Pars Convoluta Simple Cuboidalo Pars Recta Simple Cuboidal- Loop of Henleo Simple Sqaumous- Distal Tubuleo Pars Convoluta Simple Cuboidalo Pars Recta Simple Cuboidalo Macula DensaNephron Anatomy- Collecting tubuleo Receives urine from nephrons- Simple cuboidalCalyces: Urine Collection Begins- Transitional - Lamina Propria- Smooth muscleUreters - Active transport helps urine movement and prevents backflowUreter Histology- Mucosa- Muscularis - AdventiaUreter Histology + Urinary Bladder- Mucosao Transitionalo Lamina propriao Continuous with kidney pelvis- Muscularis o 2 Smooth Muscle Sheets*Bladder has 3 layers of smooth muscle  Inner longitudinal  Middle Circular Outer longitudinal - Adventiao Fibrous C.TUrethra- External end changes to stratified squamous - Two muscle control voiding o Internal urethral sphincter  Involuntaryo External urethral sphincter  Voluntary  Skeletal muscleFemale Urethra- Mucosao Transitional -> un-keratinized stratified squamous o Glands of Littre Mucous Secretiono Lamina Propria Fibroelastico Surrounded by thin vascular erectile coat- Musculariso Smooth muscle Inner longitudinal  Outer Circularo Surrounded by sphincter (skeletal muscle)Male Urethra: 3 Regions Histology- Prostatic Urethra o Transitional o Ductso Surrounded by prostate - Membranous Urethrao Stratified columnar mixed with pseudostratifiedo Passes through peritoneal membrane- Spongy Urethrao Stratified columnar and some pseudostratifiedo Becomes stratified squamouso Lamina Propria Fibroelastic  Glands of Littreo Passes through

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SHSU BIOL 3490 - Urinary System

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