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QC BIOL 009 - Study Guide

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Study Guide Biology 102, Exam 1This list is only a study guide, not a complete list of all the material on the test. Any material discussed in class is potential test material. Going over your lecture notes and the power point slides on ecampus is important. Domains and Kingdoms 1. All living things are grouped into one of the three “domains.” Name the domains, and describe thebasis of classification. Which domains do each of the following belong to: plants, animals, fungi, common bacteria. 2. Which domain is the most diverse?3. Eukaryotes can be divided into four kingdoms—know their names. Describe the differences between Plants, Animals, and Fungi based on their nutrition. 4. The present phylogenetic trees are based on ______5. Know to read evolutionary trees6. What are the characteristics shared by all living things?7. Know the two basic types of cells, and what makes prokaryotes and eukaryotes different. What kinds of organisms are prokaryotes? Are multi-celled organisms eukaryotes, prokaryotes, or both?8. What features do ALL cells share? Review your notes from class.Bacteria and archaea1. What structures do bacteria and archaea cells have in common? (Are they prokaryotes, or eukaryotes?)2. Know the parts and functions of a typical bacterial cell.3. Are bacteria relatively new or relatively ancient forms of life on Earth?4. Describe the general modes of nutrition of bacteria. How are autotrophs, and heterotrophs different? 5. What 3 general shapes are seen in bacteria? How does Gram staining work?6. What is bacterial reproduction called?7. How does bacteria get new genetic material (DNA)? Ans: Conjugation, Transduction, Transformation (look up your notes and make sure you know what these terms mean)8. Name some reasons why bacteria are essential to humans, and to life on Earth. What are the good things that bacteria does? Define bioremediation. Do most bacteria cause diseases?9. What is an antibiotic? How do antibiotics work? Where do most antibiotics come from? Role of plasmid in antibiotic resistance.10. Be familiar with any examples of bacteria discussed in class.11. Why are the prokaryotes split into two different domains? The answer will include all the differences that I mentioned in class between bacteria and archaea. Know the differences. For many molecular features (DNA, cell membrane etc), Archaea are most like organisms in domain ____. In appearances archaea are most like the organisms in domain ____. Know the various types of archaea that live in extreme conditions12. Do archaea live only in extreme conditions?Viruses 13. Describe the structure of a “typical” virus. Some viruses have an additional _____14. What is a bacteriophage? 15. What is the difference between replication in DNA virus, RNA virus and Retrovirus16. Why do viruses need host cells?17. How does a virus attach itself to and enter a cell? Why is that most viruses can only infect a single species18. Know the structure of a HIV virus. What enzymes does a HIV virus have and what do those enzymes help with?19. Know the process of HIV replication 20. Does a virus always cause immediate infection? (Review HIV in the book.) 21. How do emerging viruses come about?22. Know about vaccines and antiviral drugs. How can antiviral drugs be designed to stop HIV reproduction?23. What is a prion? What are the diseases caused by prions? What similar condition occurs in humans? How do individuals become infected?24. Be familiar with any specific examples of viruses, or prions discussed in class.25. Any beneficial viruses?26. What do the letters H and N in a flu virus name (H1N1) represent?27. Be able to define or explain the following termsEmerging virusesViral genome/genetic material…do all viruses have one? What is it made of?Capsid… all viruses have one? What is it made of?Envelope/membrane…do all viruses have one? What is it made of?BacteriophageReverse

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