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APY 345 MIDTERM: COMPARATIVE PRIMATE ANATOMY TERMSAnatomical Terms: Lecture 1 - January 28, 2019-Nomina anatomica – agreed upon international “language” which gives anatomical names to individual structures; based in Latin and Greeko Developed to facilitate communication for anatomists worldwide -Anatomical Position – erect position of the body with the face directed forward, arms at the side,palms facing forwardo Used as a reference in describing the relation of body parts to one another- Body Planeso Sagittal (Median) plane – vertical plane that divides the body into symmetrical halveso Coronal plane – vertical plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral partso Transverse (Horizontal) plane – passes through the body and is parallel to the ground- Anatomical Direction - Bipeds and Quadrupedso Anterior (ventral) – fronto Lateral – away from midlineo External – outer o Superior (cranial) – above, topo Proximal – toward trunko Superficial – more externalo Posterior (dorsal) - backo Medial – toward midlineo Internal – inner o Inferior (caudal) – below, tailo Distal – away from trunko Deep – more internal- Directions of Movemento Abduction – away from midlineo Flexion – decreasing angleo Pronation – palm posterioro Medial Rotation – toward mido Inversion – foot toward midlineo Adduction – towards midlineo Extension – increasing angleo Supination – palm anterioro Lateral Rotation – away mido Eversion – foot away midline - The Bony Skeletono Axial – consists of the bones of the head and trunko Appendicular – consists of bones of the limbs and supporting pectoral and pelvic girdleo Musculoskeletal Development: Lecture 2 – February 4, 2019- Embryological germ layerso Ectoderm – central nervous system and peripheral nerveso Mesoderm – connective tissue including bone, cartilage, dentin, cementumo Endoderm – gut- Paraxial mesoderm – area of mesoderm in neurulating embryo that flanks and forms simultaneously with the neural tube- Somiteso Cube of mesoderm in which the neural tube is derivedo Concentrated, segmented sections of paraxial mesoderm that line the neural tubeo Each somite is associated with a spinal nerve and has 3 components: sclerotome (bone), myotome (muscle), and dermatome (skin)- Somatopleuric mesoderm – pulled out into the developing limb bud to form the skeletal and muscular components of the limbs- Endochondral ossification – bones are preceded by cartilage precursors called cartilage models- Mesenchyme – loosely organized, mainly mesodermal embryonic tissue which develops into connective and skeletal tissues, including blood and lympho Starts process of endochondral ossification; can differentiateo Gives rise to cartilage cells; the mesenchyme that was around this area differentiates into a membrane called the perichondrium - Perichondriumo Mesenchymal membrane that develops around cartilaginous modelo 2 layers: (1) outer fibrous layer (2) inner layer (chondrogenic – can make cartilage)o Becomes periosteum which has blood supply- Periosteum – after perichondrium becomes vascularized, it is known as the periosteum- Osteocyte – mature bone cello Osteoctyes are formed when osteoblasts (bone producing cells) become trapped in the body matrix they are secreting- Periosteal bud – vascular connective tissue bud from the perichondrium that enters the cartilageof a developing long bone and contributes to the formation of a center for ossification- Diaphysis – primary center of ossification; shaft of long bones- Epiphysis – secondary center of ossification; ends of long bones- Membranous (intramembranous) ossification – ossification of flat boneso Ossify by deposition on tissue within an embryonic connective tissue membraneo Skull, mandible, clavicleo Fibrous membrane, ossification center, trabeculae- Diploe – spongy bone inside skullo Arthrology- Fibrous Joints – immoveable joints connected by ligamentso Syndesmosis: connects 2 bones by ligament (ex. Styloid process of skull to hyoid; distal fibula & tibia)o Suture: joints between bones of the skull held together with very short, interconnecting fibers (fine membrane between flat bones of neurocranium that interdigitate)o Gomphosis: fiber between alveolar bone and root of tooth (periodontal ligament holds them in place)- Cartilaginous Joints – connected entirely by cartilage and allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint, but less than synovial jointso Synchondrosis – almost immovable joint between bones bound by a layer of cartilage (vertebrae)o Symphysis – secondary cartilaginous joint that is permanent and slightly moveable (pubic symphysis)- Synovial Joints – freely movable; connected with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of joined bones and consists of two layers: (1) outer fibrous membrane, (2) innersynovial membrane o Plane (gliding) – bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved Acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, intercarpal, intertarsal, vertebrocostal, sacro-iliac o Ginglymus (hinge) – slightly rounded end of one bone fits into slightly hollow end of other bone Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal jointso Trochoid (pivot) – rounded end of one bone fits into ring formed by another bone Atlas/axis, proximal radio-ulnar jointsoo Ellipsoid/Condylar – oval-shaped end bone fits into similarly oval-shaped hollow of otherbone Radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal 2-5, metatarsophalangeal jointso Sellar (saddle) – ends of each bone resemble a saddle, concave and convex portions fit together First carpometacarpal jointso Spheroid (ball and socket) – rounded, ball-like end of bone fits into cuplike socket of other bone Shoulder, hip jointso Myology – muscle tissue- Myotome – each muscle in the body is supplied by a particular level or segment of the spinal cord and by its corresponding spinal nerveo Epaxial division = Dorsal Primary Ramuso Hypaxial division = Ventral Primary Ramus- Sesamoid bone – small independent bone or bony nodule developed in a tendono Typically in areas of stresso Found in the foot, patella in the knee- Fascia – a flat band of tissue below the skin that covers underlying tissues and separates different layers of tissue (fat)- Aponeurosis – a sheet of pearly white fibrous tissue that takes the place of a tendon in flat muscles having a wide area of attachment- Classes of Leverso Class I –

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