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APY 275 Test Review #2 ● Body Image of Nacirema: The Nacirema believe that they have to engage in body rituals in order to maintain their personhood. -They are horrified/fascinated with the mouth. They believe that the mouth has a supernatural influence on all social relationships. They perform rituals to prevent harm (their teeth falling out, their gums bleeding, their jaws shrinking, & their friends/lovers disappearing from their lives). They believe that there is a strong relationship between oral & moral characteristics. -They perform a daily body ritual that consists of inserting a small bundle of hog hairs into the mouth, along with magical powders and moving in specific gestures. -Stripping of clothes of supplicant in latipso temple: In everyday life, the Nacirema avoids exposure of his body and its natural functions. Bathing and excretory acts are performed only in the secrecy of the household shrine, where they are ritualized as part of the body-rites. ● Eduardo’s Mesa: Eduardo is a shaman and performs rituals, mediating between two worlds (human & supernatural) for individuals that need healing. -To know if the clients have been victims of witchcraft, Eduardo performs a “guinea pig ritual”. He uses guinea pigs because they are food animals that are usually in clients’ homes, which means they may have picked up on the clients’ problems as well. Therefore, removing the guinea pigs’ internal organs will tell him if the clients are dealing with any illness or sorcery. This will tell him if he needs to do a nighttime seance for the client. -Mesa: Eduardo uses 3 different items to perform the nighttime seance. He used to be a sculptor, so these are meaningful things to him. Each one can determine a different problem. Theitems are: the left hand (contains objects of evil), the right hand (contains good) , & the “Campo Media” (contains both evil and good). -He uses the left hand (evil) to determine the state of the client. A figure representing St. Paul moves into the Field of the Sly Dealer to remove Judas (the disciple who betrayed Jesus) from it temporarily. Judas knows what is going on in the realms of evil – his dwelling place – but he still has an affinity with the realm of goodness. For this reason, he is able to give a “report” about the evils affecting the client. -Unless balance is achieved, the “judges” of the Middle Field will not be able to do their work. He has to do all of these things to creare that. -Cultural logic= power + balance ● Doctor’s White Coat: The doctor’s white coat may communicate to patients that they should trust the doctor and it officializes the doctor’s role/dominance. -Medical meanings of whiteness: healthy or more life???******* -The color of the uniforms changed from black to white because they represented cleanliness, purity, and a fresh start for the medical profession (contrary to the color black, which is relative to death). ● Levi-Strauss on Sorcery: There are three kinds of belief that matter: the belief of the shaman, the belief of the patient, and the belief of the community. -”The Zuni Trial”:The Zuni boy became a sorcerer because as he continuously lied about being one and eventually, no one was interested in the trial or proving him innocent or guilty. They were interested in proving that he was an actual sorcerer and they allowed him tomanipulate them into thinking he was through multiple situations (ex: when they searched his home, looking in the walls).************* -Quesalid became to believe the power of shamans because compared to the rituals that he was performing for his clients, he believed that his was way more effective, so technically, he did somewhat become a believer.*********** ● Importance of clinicians’ attitudes in the placebo effect (resemblances to shamans): Moerman argues that the beliefs of doctors matter more in bringing about the “placebo effect” than any beliefs or characteristics that patients might have. -“what patients know (not what kinds of people they are), and what things mean, is what accounts for the effectiveness of much of medical treatment” (p.140). -This idea can relate back to the idea of shamans rituals because generally, the effectiveness of the shaman’s rituals depend on whether or not the clients actually believe in the meaning behind it, along with the shaman. ● Personalistic vs. naturalistic healing systems: Personalistic healing systems are when diseases are explained as due to active, purposeful intervention of an agent (may be human, non-human, or supernatural). Naturalistic healing systems are when diseases are explained in terms of natural forces or conditions that disturb the body’s equilibrium. -Personalistic: illness is a special case in the explanation of all misfortune. Curers have to possess supernatural or magical powers and responsibility for illness is often outside the patient’s control.-Naturalistic: The primary role of a doctor may be more therapeutic than diagnostic. Diagnosis may be made by the sick person and/or his or her family, without the assistance of a diviner or a shaman. the exercise of absolute care should in principle keep a person healthy. Therefore, concerned family members may actually feel some anger at a person for falling ill. ● How the body is felt differently in different healing systems: pulse vs. mo: Greek and Chinese doctors understood pulse differently than us. They believed that “mo”, which means “blood vessels/pulse”, could be felt/tracked by pressing their fingers to one’s wrist. The doctors can then determine the state of certain organs, depending on where they placed their fingers on the wrist. They check for the movement of “mo” and if it is slippery or rough. -Western physicians do not believe this idea; they offer the explanation that the mo, which circulates around the body, arises from the blood vessels of the heart, that it is because of the ceaseless activity of the heart that the mo move. ● Elements of healing authority (sources, qualities, aims, scope): apply to biomedical doctors and Hmong shamans: -Shamans (Txiv neebs): Might spend up to 8 hours in a sick person’s home. polite, never needed to ask questions, could render an immediate diagnosis, never undressed patients, & treated soul as well as body. -Biomedical doctors: Forced patients to come

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UB APY 275LEC - Test Review #2

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