Unformatted text preview:

Terminology and People Ecology the scientific study of the relationship between organisms and their environment Controlled Manipulative Experiment experiment where a scientists tests and controls some part of what is happening Observational Experiment a scientist simply observes and records data from observation Environmental Science an interdisciplinary field of study that incorporates concepts from the incorporates concepts from the natural sciences including ecology and the social sciences e g politics economics ethics focused on how people affect the environment and how we can address environmental problems Population a group of individuals of a single species that live in a particular area and interact with one another Biotic of or referring to the living components of an environment Abiotic of or referring to the physical or nonliving environment Ecosystem A community of organisms plus the physical environment in which they live Evolution 1 change in allele frequencies in a population over time 2 descent with modification the process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors Adaptation a physiological morphological or behavioral trait with an underlying genetic basis that enhances the survival and reproduction of its bearers in their environment Natural Selection the process by which individuals with certain heritable characteristics tend to survive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals because of those characteristics Producer Autotroph an organism that converts energy from sunlight or from inorganic chemical compounds in the environment into chemical energy stored in the carbon carbon bonds of organic compounds Consumer Heterotroph an organism that obtains energy by consuming energy rich organic compounds made by other organisms Net Primary Productivity the amount of energy per unit of tie that producers capture by photosynthesis and chemosynthesis minus the amount they use in cellular respiration Climate Change directional change in climate over a period of three decades or longer Replication the performance of each treatment of a controlled experiment including the control more than once Scientific Method Natural history observations question hypothesis predictions experimental design data collection and analysis comparing predictions and data if unsuccessful prediction hypothesis rejection go back up to hypothesis if successful predictions hypothesis confirmation question answered additional testing go back up to predictions Case Study Deformity and Decline in Amphibians Understand how the different studies both manipulative and observational experiments worked together to help understand the problems observed in wild frog populations In the study using the smaller mesh where the Riberiroia cercariae weren t able to get in there were no deformities even when pesticides were present In the studies with the larger mesh the frogs in the ponds without pesticides were 4 deformed while the frogs in ponds with pesticides were 29 deformed Examine Analyzing Data 1 1 on page 18 Look back to BIO203 and how to make proper figures and tables Will need to know later Major Concepts and Questions How does ecology differ from environmental science Ecology is organismally based while environmental science concentrates more on human s role on the environment Review ideas of the levels of integration think about hierarchies as we ll talk about them later Individual population community ecosystem biosphere Why is understanding evolution necessary for ecologists Understanding patterns with an evolutionary framework Review ideas of experimental design such as Replication duplicating an experiment in an attempt to get the same result Dependent Response Variable variable being tested and measured Independent Variable variable that is changed or controlled Types of Data observed naturally staged observation quantitative observation qualitative observation Integrative Ideas What factors make hypothesis testing in ecology often problematic and or difficult When questions concern events occurring over large geographic scales such as climate change Chapter 2 Terminology and People Weather the temperature humidity precipitation wind and cloud Hadley Cell A large scale three dimensional pattern of atmospheric circulation in each hemisphere in which air is uplifted at the equator and subsides at about 30 degrees N and S Upwelling The rising of deep ocean waters to the surface Milankovitch Cycles Cycles of regular change over thousands of years in the shape of Earth s orbit in the angle of tilt of its axis and in its orientation toward other celestial bodies that cange the intensity of solar radiation received by Earth Climate The long term description of weather based on averages and variation measured over decades Coriolis Effect The apparent deflection of air or water currents when viewed from a rotating reference point such as Earth s surface Rain Shadow Effect the effect a mountain range has on regional climate b forcing moving air upward causing it to cool and release precipitation on the windward slopes resulting in lower levels of precipitation and soil moisture on the leeward slope Acidity A measure of the ability of a solution to behave as an acid a compound that releases protons H to the water in which it is dissolved Alkalinity A measure of the ability of a solution to behave as a base a compound that takes up protons H or releases hydroxide ions OH Greenhouse Gases atmospheric gases that absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation emitted by Earth s surface including water vapor carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide Heat Capacity The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance Evapotranspiration the sum of water loss through evaporation and transpiration Hypoxia of or relating to a condition of oxygen depletion usually below a level that can sustain most animals Case Study Climate Variation and Salmon Abundance a What are the main causes for the variability in salmon abundance Major Concepts and Questions a Understand weather and climate and how they re different How does climate control where organisms live b Understand how temperatures and precipitation vary across the globe and over time across seasons What causes temperature and precipitation to vary both with latitude but also Seasons Temp tilt of the axis the sun hits at a stronger angle in the summer less strong in the winter Latitude Temp warmer closer to

View Full Document

UWL BIO 307 - Ecology Ch I, II and III Study Guide

Download Ecology Ch I, II and III Study Guide
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Ecology Ch I, II and III Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Ecology Ch I, II and III Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?