UWL BIO 307 - Ecology Ch I, II and III Study Guide

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Terminology and People:Ecology: the scientific study of the relationship between organisms and their environment Controlled (Manipulative) Experiment: experiment where a scientists tests and controls somepart of what is happening Observational Experiment: a scientist simply observes and records data from observationEnvironmental Science: an interdisciplinary field of study that incorporates concepts from the incorporates concepts from the natural sciences (including ecology) and the social sciences (e.g. politics, economics, ethics), focused on how people affect the environment and how we can address environmental problems Population: a group of individuals of a single species that live in a particular area and interact with one another Biotic: of or referring to the living components of an environment Abiotic: of or referring to the physical or nonliving environment Ecosystem: A community of organisms plus the physical environment in which they live Evolution: (1) change in allele frequencies in a population over time (2) descent with modification; the process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestorsAdaptation: a physiological, morphological, or behavioral trait with an underlying genetic basis that enhances the survival and reproduction of its bearers in their environment Natural Selection: the process by which individuals with certain heritable characteristics tend tosurvive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals because of those characteristicsProducer (Autotroph): an organism that converts energy from sunlight or from inorganic chemical compounds in the environment into chemical energy stored in the carbon-carbon bonds of organic compounds Consumer (Heterotroph): an organism that obtains energy by consuming energy-rich organic compounds made by other organisms Net Primary Productivity: the amount of energy per unit of tie that producers capture by photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, minus the amount they use in cellular respirationClimate Change: directional change in climate over a period of three decades or longerReplication: the performance of each treatment of a controlled experiment, including the control, more than onceScientific Method: Natural history observations ➝ question ➝ hypothesis ➝ predictions ➝ experimental design ➝ data collection and analysis ➝ comparing predictions and data ➝ (if unsuccessful prediction) hypothesis rejection--go back up to hypothesis, (if successful predictions) hypothesis confirmation ➝ question answered ➝ additional testing (go back up to predictions) Case Study - Deformity and Decline in Amphibians:Understand how the different studies - both manipulative and observational experiments - worked together to help understand the problems observed in wild frog populations: In the study using the smaller mesh, where the Riberiroia cercariae weren’t able to get in, there were no deformities even when pesticides were present In the studies with the larger mesh, the frogs in the ponds without pesticides were 4% deformed while the frogs in ponds with pesticides were 29% deformed Examine Analyzing Data 1.1 on page 18. Look back to BIO203 and how to make proper figures and tables. Will need to know later. Major Concepts and Questions: How does ecology differ from environmental science? Ecology is organismally based while environmental science concentrates more on human’s role on the environment Review ideas of the levels of integration (think about hierarchies as we’ll talk about them later) Individual, population, community, ecosystem, biosphereWhy is understanding evolution necessary for ecologists? Understanding patterns with an evolutionary frameworkReview ideas of experimental design such as:Replication: duplicating an experiment in an attempt to get the same result Dependent (Response Variable): variable being tested and measured Independent ( Variable): variable that is changed or controlled Types of Data: observed naturally, staged observation, quantitative observation, qualitative observation Integrative Ideas: What factors make hypothesis testing in ecology often problematic and/or difficult?When questions concern events occurring over large geographic scales, such as climate change Chapter 2Terminology and People: Weather: the temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind and cloudHadley Cell: A large-scale, three-dimensional pattern of atmospheric circulation in each hemisphere in which air is uplifted at the equator and subsides at about 30 degrees N and SUpwelling: The rising of deep ocean waters to the surface Milankovitch Cycles: Cycles of regular change over thousands of years in the shape of Earth’sorbit, in the angle of tilt of its axis, and in its orientation toward other celestial bodies that cange the intensity of solar radiation received by Earth Climate: The long-term description of weather, based on averages and variation measured overdecades Coriolis Effect: The apparent deflection of air or water currents when viewed from a rotating reference point such as Earth’s surface Rain-Shadow Effect: the effect a mountain range has on regional climate b forcing moving air upward, causing it to cool and release precipitation on the windward slopes, resulting in lower levels of precipitation and soil moisture on the leeward slopeAcidity: A measure of the ability of a solution to behave as an acid, a compound that releases protons (H+) to the water in which it is dissolvedAlkalinity: A measure of the ability of a solution to behave as a base, a compound that takes upprotons (H+) or releases hydroxide ions (OH-) Greenhouse Gases: atmospheric gases that absorb and reradiate the infrared radiation emitted by Earth’s surface, including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxideHeat Capacity: The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance Evapotranspiration: the sum of water loss through evaporation and transpiration Hypoxia: of or relating to a condition of oxygen depletion, usually below a level that can sustain most animals Case Study - Climate Variation and Salmon Abundancea. What are the main causes for the variability in salmon abundance? Major Concepts and Questions: a. Understand weather and climate and how they’re different. How does climate control where organisms live? b. Understand how temperatures and precipitation vary across the globe and over time. - What causes temperature and precipitation to vary – both

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