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Diversity

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DIVERSITYINLIVINGWORLDEachlivingorganism hascertaindistinctivefunctionsandfeaturesthatseparateitfrom non-livingthings,suchas: Growthwhichispermanent,irreversibleincreaseinmass(determinate,e.g.,humansorindeterminate e.g.,plants)in multicellularorganisms and increase in numberofindividualsinunicellularones Reproductionforcontinuityoflife Metabolicfunctions,eithercatabolic(breakingdown)oranabolic(buildingup) Definitecellullarorganisation.- Abilityofmovementandlocomotion. Adaptabilitytoincreasesurvivalrate. Respirationforenergygeneration(aerobic/anaerobic) Maintenanceofhomeostasisinbody Consciousness,i.e.,theabilitytosensetheirsurroundingsandrespondaccordingly AgeingafteragrowthperiodandthennaturaldeathBIODIVERSITYLivingorganismsrangefrommicroscopicbacteriaandalgaetogiantbluewhale.ThisdiversityoflifeformsistermedasbiodiversitybyEdwardWilson.ThetermbiodiversitycombinestwowordsGk.bios=life,andEng.diversity=differenceinforms.Duetosuchalargediversityoflifeforms,apropersystemofclassificationisamustbecauseitisnotpossibletostudyeveryorganism.Thestudyofoneortwoorganismsofagroupgivessufficientinformationabouttheessentialfeaturesofthegroup.Withoutanysystemofclassificationorganismscannotbeidentified.Classificationhelpsinknowingtherelationshipsamongstdifferentgroupsoforganisms.SYSTEMATICSSystematics(Gk.systema-order,sequence)isthebranchofbiologythatdealswithdiversityoforganismsandalltheircomparativeandevolutionaryrelationshipsbasedonthestudyofcomparativeanatomy,morphology,biochemistry,physiologyetc.TAXONOMYTaxonomy(taxis-arrangement,nomos-law,deCandolle,1813)isdefinedasthesciencedealingwithidentification,nomenclatureandclassificationoforganisms.Itisthestudyofrules,principlesandpracticesofclassification,identificationandnomenclatureoforganisms.laxonomyofplantsisalsocalledsystematicbotanyandthatofanimalsiscalledsystematiczoology.CarolusLinnaeusiscalledthefatheroftaxonomyorfatherofsystematicbotany.H.SantapauiscalledthefatherofIndiantaxonomy.BRANCHESOFTAXONOMY1.cladistictaxonomy2.Chemotaxonomy3.Numericaltaxonomy4.CytotaxonomyFUNDAMENTALCOMPONENTSOFTAXONOMY1.Classification-Itisthearrangemeentoforganismsintoconvenientcategoriesorgroupsonthebasisoftheirsimilaritiesanddifferencesincertaineasilyobservablebutfundamentalcharacters.Thus,itinvolveshierarchyofstepsinwhicheachsteprepresentsarankorcategory.2.Identification-Itistodeterminetheexactplaceorpositionofanorganism inthesetplanofclassification3.Nomenclature(nomen-name,calare-call)-TheprocessofgivingscientificnamestoplantsandanimalsiscallednomenclatureTAAXONOMICALHIERARCHY1.Kingdom - includes allorganisms thatshare a setofdistinguishing commoncharacters.PlantsareputinPlantKingdomwhileanimalsareincludedinAnimalKingdom.Thisisthehighesttaxonomiccategory2.Phylum-Itincludesallorganismsbelongingtodifferentclasseshavingafewcommoncharacters.BotanistsusethetermDivisionforPhylum.3.class-itincludesoneormorerelatedorders.4.Order-itincludesoneOrmorerelatedfamilies5.Family-itincludesoneormorerelatedgenera,differentiatedfrom


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