Lincoln College MUS 152 - Exam 1 LISTENING GUIDE

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Exam 1 LISTENING GUIDE“New York, NY”: Wendy Mae Chambers is an instrument inventor. For this piece she wired junkyard car and truck horns to a keyboard. The resulting performance is a great demonstration of the difference between a MELODY, and random pitches. A melody has COHERENCE.“Ride of the Valkyries”: In this famous passage by Richard Wagner (from his opera “Die Walküre”) the composer uses ASCENDING MELODIC CONTOUR to invoke the image of flying warriors. European classical melodies and their derivatives traditionally use ascending contours, for example, most of Beethoven’s symphonies rise in pitch toward a climactic point near the end. “The Sky is Crying”: Elmore James was a Chicago bandleader, slide guitarist, and singer. His musical phrases make use of DESCENDING MELODIC CONTOURS. Blues music and many other African-derived popular music styles make use of descendingcontours. Note the use of SLIDING PITCH, in James’ guitar and vocal delivery. “Prelude No. 15”: from a collection of keyboard works (The Well-Tempered Clavier)by Johan Sebastian Bach, composed in the early 1700s. Despite its undulating contour, the piece is made of fast moving FIXED PITCHES notes, somewhat analogous to the pixels that compose a digital image. Standard written notation (sheet music) is a FIXED PITCH system.“Dripsody” by Hugh McCain. This piece was created in a recording studio using a single drop of water, looped and then slowed and sped up to produce a sense of flexible time.“Kyrie”: Sung by the Benedictine Monks of the Abbey of Santo Domingo Silos. These singers are blending their voices to create a single unified sound. This is an example of MONOPHONIC TEXTURE, since the goal is to create a single voice.“Gira Gira”: by the Cuban big band Irakire. This is an example of COUNTERPOINT. Multiple voices, playing different melody lines, competing equally for your attention.“G Minor Fugue”: Another example of COUNTERPOINT. Four separate melodies make staggered entrances. The resulting TEXTURE is very DENSE as the voices overlap and compete.“Nkosi Sikilele Afrika”: This anthem is sung in a HOMOPHONIC TEXTURE. Four sections (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) sing the same words but on different pitches (harmony.) Hymns are often sung in this texture.“Lonely Woman”: Ornette Coleman (alto sax) and Don Cherry (trumpet.) This recording made in 1959 introduced HETEROPHONIC TEXTURE to jazz. After the initial drum/bass introduction, the sax and trumpet play the same melody but out ofphase with each other. Later, the solos are in melody and accompaniment texture, then the piece returns to the main theme in HETEROPHONIC TEXTURE.“Xunfeng Qu” (Warm Wind Melody): This is a Chinese silk and bamboo duo playing a traditional melody in HETEROPHONIC TEXTURE. They ply the same tune, but eachvoice is very distinct.“The Blackbird”: The Bothy Band, Irish bagpipe. The texture is MELODY AND DRONE. This is an Irish “air,” a slow passionate tune that shows off the expressiveness of the pipes.“The Swan”: Peformed by Clara Rockmore on the theremin, accompanied by piano. This is MeELODY AND ACCOMPANIMENT TEXTURE. The theremin is an early electronic instrument, perhaps the only instrument that you play without touching.“Coleraine”: An Irish jig played on banjo. The FORM is AABB, typical of dance music of the British Isles.“Andes accordion piece”: this was recorded at a festival in the high Andes of Peru. Note the FORM: A-phrase/repeat, B-phrase/repeat, C-phrase/repeat. Because it has three parts, this melody is in TERNARY FORM. Not also that the vocals alternate with instrumentals. “Oh Bye Bye”: The late Boozoo Chavis was a Zydeco accordion player from SW Louisiana. This piece is in OSTINATO FORM. No sections, only a repeating phrase or RIFF.“Valse des cerfs-volants” or “Waltz of the Kites”: this piece starts in a THREE-BEATMETER. Halfway through the piece switches to a meter of nine beats (123,123,123) but the TEMPO doesn’t actually change (tap your feet and confirm.)“Dagamba drumming”: This is an example of POLYRHYTHM, two meters superimposed on each other. The talking drums play in a three-beat meter, the bass drums play in a slower two-beat

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Lincoln College MUS 152 - Exam 1 LISTENING GUIDE

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