UMaine FSN 330 - Virtual Lab – Hand Crafted Sausages

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Summary of the ActivityLearning objectiveTraditional Procedure4. Cook –Virtual contentPlease review the following video tutorials:- Making sausage (with equipment): Nitrates/Nitrites: Curing salts - Celery juice powder - and Discussion Questions4. (25 points) Production Questions:Food Science 103 1 | P a g e Virtual Lab – Hand Crafted Sausages Summary of the Activity In the traditional lab, students worked in teams to process a variety of sausages using a hand cranked linker press. Once all the sausages were linked, the class then weighed the product, cooked (and/or smoked the sausages), cooled and weighed the product again to help calculate the product yield. Learning objective The learning objectives of this lab are to: - Understand the scientific principle related to processing cured meats. - Understand the concept of production yield loss and calculate yield loss from the sausage making process. Background Since the dawn of man, meat has been a part of the human diet. Nowadays, large debate has evolved around the consumption of meat, namely of red meat, and its impact on health, e.g. the incidence of colon cancer. In respect to food processing, meat curing and smoking are some of the major process’s meat undergoes. Meat curing is the application of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and/or sodium nitrate, seasonings and other additives (phosphates, reducing agents, etc.) to meat to develop unique properties and avoid rapid deterioration. Overall, this process is aimed at both preserving the color of meat and minimizing bacterial spoilage. The color of meat is one of the most important factors affecting the consumer`s decision to purchase fresh and processed meat products. Most of the color of meat arises from Myoglobin which is a protein abundant in muscle tissues. Myoglobin doesn't circulate in the blood but is fixed in tissue cells and in its native form has a purplish color. When it is mixed with oxygen, it becomes oxymyoglobin and produces a bright red color. Some of the color of meat also arises from hemoglobin, present in the blood or small amounts of blood left in the tissues after slaughter. The color of meat may change during processing, shipping and storage. When safely stored in the refrigerator or freezer, color changes are normal for fresh meat and poultry. However, color changes for processed meat are undesirable, mainly because that makes the products less appealing to the consumer. For this reason, many meat products undergo a curing process, in which salts are added to the meat in order to help maintain its color as well as help preserve the food for extended periods of time. The basic reaction occurring during the development of the characteristic color of cured meats is represented by: Nitrite has an inhibitory effect on C. botulinum and produces the cured meat pigment, nitric oxide myoglobin. However, the curing of meats is problematic due to the known impact of nitrites on human health, namely cardiovascular health. Therefore, the addition of nitrites is monitored and regulated by health authorities. The addition of salt inhibits spoilage largely by reducing the amount of water available for microbial growth. It also improves protein solubilization and the development of flavor. Sometimes, alkali salts are added to tenderize the meat through solubilization and hydrolysis of the extracellular protein matrix in the tissue. Sugar is added to improve flavor, phosphates to increase the water binding capacity of meat, and several reductants heat Reduced + Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Nitrosyl Myoglobin Myoglobin Hemochrome (purplish red) (red) (pink)Food Science 103 2 | P a g e to accelerate color development. Although smoking provides a preservative effect, the main reasons for smoking meat today are the development of specific flavors and improvement of appearance of the final product. More than 200 compounds have been identified in wood smoke (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, organic acids, etc). Most of these compounds exhibit either bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties, however formaldehyde probably accounts for most of the preservative action of smoke. Traditional Procedure Group Assignments: Each group will be responsible for preparing one sausage type. Through this process students will need to convert your recipe into a gram weight formula. The group assignments will be posted in the pilot plant. When converting your household measures into gram weights make sure that you tare your scale, use a weigh boat and report the value from an average of at least 5 weights. • Recipe 1: Bavarian Bratwurst • Recipe 2: Smoked Cheddar and Jalapeño Sausage • Recipe 3: Italian Sausage Sausage making: Below outlines the general processing steps used for traditional sausage making. Since this will be a lab demonstration, many of these steps will be done manually. 1. Meat grinding – this lab will not focus on grinding and we’ll be using ground pork. 2. Meat seasoning – we will produce three types of seasonings for the sausages (refer to Table 1). a. Seasoning mix 1: Bavarian Bratwurst b. Seasoning mix 2: Smoked Cheddar and Jalapeno Sausage c. Seasoning mix 3: Italian Sausage Source, weigh, record and mix the seasoning blend manually (hand-mix) until well mixed. Add the meat and continue hand-mix until well blended. 3. Stuffing – We will be using 5# hand stuffers and natural hog casings. NOTE: The stuffers have a holding capacity of 5 pounds; therefore you will need to reload the unit several times to link the entire product. a. Prepare casings – hog casings should be soaked in water for at least ½ an hour, prior to use. b. Fill canister – use the meat mixture to tightly fill the canister. c. Mount casing on the outlet tube. Don’t forget to spray PAM on the tube and leave about an inch of casing free. d. Stuffing- carefully press some meat into the casing then release trapped air and tie the casing end. Continue to stuff the casing with meat mixture until either casing runs out or canister is empty of meat. Tie another knot at the second end of the casing. e. Carefully, twist the stuffed casing into individual sausages. 4. Cook – a. Yield – In a bowl, report its weight

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