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Topic: The Expressive Macro Skills – SpeakingI. Nature and Purpose of Speaking“Speaking does not only make sound by the speech organs but ideas and emotions. Speaking isthe active use of language to express meaning so that other people can make sense of them,therefore, the label of productive use of language can be applied to speaking.”Speech Production- Production of a speech sound is divided into four interrelated processes. The initiation ofthe air stream, normally in the lungs; phonation in the larynx through the operation ofvocal folds. Three Stages of Speech Production- Conceptualization – the action or process of forming a concept or idea of something.- Formulation – the action of devising or creating something- Articulation – involves the use of organs of speech to produce soundsSelf-monitoring and Repair- Self-monitoring - happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation,and articulation.- Repairs – hand in hand with monitoring is the ability to make running.- Automaticity – is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-leveldetails required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or hobbit.Fluency – is defined as the ability to read with speech, accuracy, and proper expression.- Speed- Pausing- The length of run5 Speaking Rules1. Don’t study grammar too much2. Learn and study phrases3. Reading and listening is not enough. Practice what you hear4. Submerge yourself5. Study the correct materialManaging Talk- Interaction- Turn-taking- ParalinguisticPurpose of Speaking- To inform – sharing information towards an audience- To persuade – persuasive speech can be distinguished from an informative speech by thefact that it includes a call for action for the audience to make some change in theirbehavior of thinking.- To entertain – an entertaining speech can be either informative of persuasive at its root,but the context or theme of the speech requires speakers to think about the speechprimarily in terms of audience enjoyment.Mechanics and Process of Speaking- Three mechanisms that we use to produce speech are respiration at the lungs, phonationat the larynx, and articulation in the mouth.Stages of the Speaking ProcessBreathing – is primarily concerned with maintaining life, secondarily a force assistingvocalization. It consists of two phases; inhalation and exhalation.- Lungs – serves as the reservoir of air- Diaphragm – a large sheet of muscle separating the chest from the abdomenPhonation Stage – phonation takes place when voice is produced in speaking as the expiratoryair stream from the lungs goes up through the trachea or windpipe to the larynx.- Larynx – principal organ of Phonation- Vocal cords – a pair of bundles of muscles and cartilages.- Trachea – passageway of the air going up from the lungsResonation Stage – the voice produces in phonation is weak. It becomes strong and rich whenapplied and modified by human resonators. Resonation is the process of voice amplification andmodification.- Pharynx – located behind the nose and mouth includes the cavity at the back of thetongue- Mouth – divided into the vestibule and oral cavity properArticulation Stage – articulation occurs when the tone produced in the larynx is changed intospecific sounds. This is the result of the movement of the articulators towards the point ofarticulation.- Teeth – embedded in the alveolar ridge or the gum ridge of the oral cavity.- Lips – can be moved into numerous position essential to articulation- Tongue – flexible organ consisting of muscle glands and connective tissues.II. Speech Styles and Registers & Austin and Searle’s Speech ActsSpeech Style - According to Marin Joos (1976:156), speech styles means the form of language that thespeaker uses which characterized by the degree of formality5 Classes of Speech Style- Frozen – it is the most formal communicative style that is usually used during respectfulevents and ceremonies. Examples: marriage, vow, prayers, oath, taking ceremonies, etc.- Intimate – is used in conversation between people who are very close and know eachother quite well because they have the maximum of shared background information. Examples: Couple talking about their future plans, family sharing ideas, very close friendssharing secrets, etc.- Formal – in this speech style, the speaker avoids using slang terminologies; what thespeaker says is something that has been prepared beforehand. Its complex sentence andnoun phrases are well structured, logically sequences and strongly coherent.Examples: Meeting, Job Interview, SONA, announcements, etc.- Casual – the is an informal communication between groups and peers. Casual style isused in conversation between friend and insiders who have something to share and haveshared background information but don’t have close relations.- Consultative - this is used in semi-formal communication, sentences end to be shorterand spontaneous, the speaker does not usually plan what he/she wants to say.Examples: communication between Teacher and student, doctor-patient, employers andemployees, etc.Registers- A register is a variety of language used for a particular purpose or in a particularcommunicative situation.Speech Acts - A speech act is an utterance that serves a function in communication. A speech act mightcontain just one word, or several words or sentencesJ.L Austin – created Speech Act TheoryThree Types of Speech Act:- Locutionary Act – is the actual act of uttering or saying something.- Illocutionary Act – is the social function of what is said.- Perlocutionary Act – refers to the consequent effects of what was saidExample: It is raining outside.John SearleSearle’s Classification of Speech Acts- Assertives – this type of illocutionary act allows the speaker to express his belief aboutthe truth of an intention. Some examples of an assertive are boasting, suggesting,swearing, putting forward, and concluding.- Directives – an illocutionary act which the speaker tries to make the receiver perform anaction. Some examples of directive are ordering, asking, inviting, requesting, begging,and advising.- Commisives – this type commits the speaker to do something in the future. Examples ofcommissive are planning, promising, betting, and vowing-

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