Comparative Religion

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Five Pillars:OtherJudaismBaal Shem Tov: Founder of the Hasidism movementHasidism: 18th century Eastern European movement that stressed spiritual restoration and deepened individual pietyCovenant: Abraham’s promise with God that the Jews are the chosen people and must fulfill God’s wishesEschatology/Eschatological: The belief in an “End-Time” of divine judgment and world destructionSeder: Meal observed on the first two nights of Pesach to commemorate the Exodus from EgyptShavuot: A pilgrimage festival in ancient times; a spring harvest festival associated with the giving of the Torah at Mount SinaiSynagogue: Jewish place of worshipTalmud: Commentary on the TorahTanakh: Entire Hebrew sacred textTorah: First five books of the Hebrew bookYom Kippur: Day of Atonement; most solemn fast dayZionism: Jewish national identity and resuming life in the historic Land of IsraelI slamFive Pillars:Shahadah: First of the Five Pillars; declaration of faith: “There is no God but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God”Hajj: One of the Five Pillars; annual pilgrimage to MeccaMecca: The place of the Hajj pilgrimage and birthplace of MuhammadSalat: One of the Five Pillars; daily prayerSawm: One of the Five Pillars; the fast of RamadanRamadan: The month-long fast of which is one of the Five PillarsZakat: One of the Five Pillars; regular almsgivingOtherAdhan: The call to prayerHadith: Literary tradition recording the sayings and deeds of the Prophet MuhammadIslam (literal meaning): SubmissionJihad: “Striving;” the struggle with oneself to become a better personMosque: Place of prayer/worshipMuhammad: Prophet who received revelation from the Qur’anQur’an: Sacred text of Muslims; the Word of God as revealed to MuhammadShari’ah: Islamic law; “the way to the water hole”Shi’a: The branch that believes ‘Ali should have succeeded MuhammadShirk: The sin of idolatry; the one unforgivable sin in IslamSunni: The branch that believes that Muslim should pick Muhammad’s successorSurah: One chapter of the Qur’an; there are 14Umma: The worldwide Muslim communityChristianityApostolic Succession: The idea that spiritual authority has gone from Jesus and the Apostles through a line of bishopsJohn Calvin/Calvinism: Leader of the Protestant ReformationEucharist: The Holy Communion symbolic of the Last Supper; either literally or metaphorically the Body of ChristEvangelicalism: A Protestant movement that stresses the importance of the conversion experience, the Bible as the only reliable authority, and preaching the gospelIcons: Painted images of Christ and the saints; used primarily in the Orthodox ChurchGrace: God’s love for humanityLogos (in the context of John): Divine reason through which God created and sustains the universe; “theWord became flesh” in Jesus ChristCouncils of Nicea/Nicean Creed: Decided religious doctrine; the official proclamation of faithFeatures ofCatholicism: The dominant church in the West; recognizes the title of the PopeProtestantism: A Christian movement against Roman CatholicismEastern Orthodox: Eastern branch that separated from the Roman Catholic branch in 1054Paul of Tarsus: Author of part of the New Testament; an apostle who founded churches in Asia Minor, Macedonia, and GreecePentecost: Holiday to commemorate the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the disciplesPentecostalism: Movement that emphasizes spiritual renewal and the experience of God through baptismSaint: A “holy person” in Roman Catholicism and Eastern OrthodoxySacraments: A symbol of God’s grace; seven in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy; two in Protestantism (baptism and

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Comparative Religion

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