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Public Opinion vs. Mass OpinionPublic OpinionPRs must break the audience into meaningful subgroups for a certain issue.PRs must design communication strategies for each segment of the publicsMass OpinionThe average opinion (taken from a group with many different opinions) is not very useful for PR.The average opinion blurs the strength and direction of attitudesCriteria for Audience SegmentationSegments must be:DefinableMutually exclusiveMeasurableAccessiblePertinent to an organization’s missionReachable with communication in an affordable wayLarge enough to be of importance for a campaignAudience Segments qualitiesMembers of a segment share similar qualities that determine their attitude or behavior:KnowledgeConstraintsMotivationMembers of a segment can be reached through similar media, organizational, or interpersonal channelsProblem: there is no easy formula to identify those segmentsShortcuts to identify segmentsDemographicOnly valid if variables correlate with antecedents (knowledge, constraints and motivation) for attitude or behaviorUsing motivation or constraint variables that influence attitude and behaviorE.g., a segment of your adult athletes with peer norms supporting performance enhancers supplementsQualitative and quantitative methods in audience segmentsRepresentativeness is a crucial issue in audience segmentationProblems with focus groups and in-depth interview:People who agree to participate are often typicalProblem of multivariate classificationAmenable by cluster analysesTime consuming, effortful and expensiveMatching segmentation strategies to resources and taskIf segments are known, borrow them from previous research….~~NEW LECTURE~~Strategic PlanningWhat is planning about?Planning is about achieving something (a goal) in the futureThe future is uncertainPlanning is about devising the best possible path to achieve a goal in a dynamic environmentA dynamic environment is uncertainTo devise the best possible path you must:Find out where you areFind out what are the trends in the environmentAssess your strengths and weaknesses in relation to your goal*SWOT analysisTo plan is to be proactiveWhat is it like to be proactive?What is it like to be reactive?To be proactive is to consciously engage in constructing realityJust reacting to situations/events can put an organization in a vulnerable positionPreventative public relations is likely to avoid problemsTwo categories of planning:Strategic planslong range plans made by upper managementuse environmental scanning to analyze and prioritize strategic issues:identification and centrality of issuestrength of opinionTactical PlansConcerns the day-to-day operations of an organizationConcerns the immediate futureTechniques for developing plansPublic opinion surveys (scientific research)BrainstormingAll ideas are accepted initiallyNo negative feedback or critique during the discussionScenario ConstructionHypothetical description of future eventsExplores the dynamics of various alternatives03/25/14COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC RELATIONSElements of a PR PlanSituationObjectivesAudienceStrategyTacticsCalendar or timelineBudgetEvaluationPR Campaign Planning Document- 12 Steps:1. Goals must be related the organization’s mission2. Description of the problem:big or small?Should it be broken down?Is a PR audit necessary?3. Description of threats and opportunities in connection to achieving the goal (SWOT analysis)4. Selection of target audience5. Development of a theme for the program or campaign (message development)6. Development of the objectives for the plan or campaign (measurable)7. Creation of strategies to accomplish your objectives8. Developing tactics to implement strategies9. Creating evaluation techniques10. Developing a budgetlist resources (people, time and equipment)estimate the use of resourcesdetermine the cost of resources**Remember:campaigns budgets are building blocks for annual public relations departmental budgets and for bids submitted by independent PRsPR’s engage in competition for organizational resources11. Working out a timetable for each step in the process12. Assigning personnelthe plan must detail in-house and out-house human resources needed for the projectCHAPTER 7~~~THE PUBLIC RELATION PROCESS~~~Action and CommunicationStrategic Communication:The right message through the right media to the right audience at the right time and with the right effect.Influencing publics to accept and adopt your plan (campaign, program)Diffusing informationFacilitating the adoption processInfluencing decision makers (managers)To carry on your PR plan in and out of the organizationTo respond to feedback & criticismDiffusing informationSelecting the target audienceDevising the critical path of influenceFacilitating the Adoption processUsing traditional media and new mediaUsing subtler forms of influence (persuasion)Categorizing the AudiencePrimary PublicsThe group to whom the action is directedIntervening PublicsPublics who have direct contact with primary audience (family, significant others, co-workers, peers)Moderating PublicsPublics with high credibility with primary public in topic areas (experts)The Diffusion ProcessThe way new ideas are adopted in a societyChannels of influenceDiffusion TheoryFive Stages in the Diffusion of Innovation ProcessKnowledgePersuasionDecisionImplementationConfirmationAcceptRejectCritical Path of InfluenceDiffusion theoryAwareness - spread through the mass media and social mediaInterest – people seek more information-mass media and social media influenceEvaluation – people make decision to try the new product or idea-significant others influenceTrials – practical application begins–early adopters-significant others influenceAdoption – adoption by the target audience–personal experience.Channels of InfluenceMass Media and Social Media – electronic and print mediaBiased Intermediaries – salespeopleUnbiased Third Parties – consumer groups, government agenciesSignificant Others – friends and relativesPersonal Experience – actual use of innovationFacilitating the Adoption ProcessApplication of the critical path of influencepress releases (to raise awareness and interest)intervening publics (evaluation and trial)unbiased third parties (evaluation and trial)***04/01/14***Meaning of EvaluationTo measure results against objectivesPurpose of EvaluationTo do a better job in the futureTo demonstrate the value of PR to managementOrganizational resources are always

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UA COMM 313 - Final Exam

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