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Adolescence Lecture 1: (a very brief history, theory & research)- Adolescence is the second decade of life- Rapid changes - Characteristics of Children develop into characteristics of adults- Developmental Changes (3 Domains)interdependent on each other, shape each other o Biological : physical changes o Cognitive: changes in thinking, intelligence, problem solvingo Psychosocial: change in emotions, personality, relationships and social contexts “socioemotional domain”  5 main psychosocial issues- identity- autonomy- intimacy- sexuality- achievement - 3 phases: o Early Adolescence= 10-13o Middle= 14-17o Late/emerging adulthood= 18-22 years- Early Thoughts on Adolescence:o Plato: the ability to REASON differentiates children from adolescence o Aristotle: first time of SELF-DETERMINATION No research done by these philosophers o Middle ages: developmental transformation in adolescence is ignored.No research, no one caredo Enlightened View of Adolescence: JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU- Adolescence is a distinct period of the lifespan- Reasoning develops- Emotional maturation occurso AGE OF ADOLESCENCE (1890-1920) During the time of Industrial Revolution- Employed children cheaply/overworked Laws restricting child labor Begin to become an area of scholarly study- G Stanley Hall o “father of study of adolescence”o First APA presidento Initated child study movemento Describe how period of adolescence development is due to Genetically determined by PYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS All NATURE- Hall’s Theory of Recapitulation: o Human life cycle is a repetition of sequence of the species during evolutiono Changes are FUELED BY BIOLOGY o Storm and stress = adolescence is a time of extreme upheaval; hormones fueling these behaviors Conflict with parents Mood disruptions Risky behavior- Contemporary Perspectives: (organism) o Sigmund Freud: Turmoil and conflict are fueled by HORMONES (just like Hall) Early experiences (sex) are important in molding adolescent  Psychosexual  NATURE AND NURTURE Detachment: Adolescence want to detach psychologicallymake own decisions etc. without having to listen to parents (autonomy)o Erik Erikson: resolution of identity crisis 8 stage theory of development - some challenge at each phase of the lifespan that must overcome/resolve to move on to next stage- Adolescence must discover who they areresolve their identity crisis o Jean Piaget: Biological influence on development and the quality of the Environment COGNITIONwhat makes an adolescence thinking different and how does it occur?o Behaviorism (BF SKINNER)operant conditioning Reinforcements (+) (increase chances of behavior) /punishments (-)(decrease chances of behavior) make us who we are Shape adolescence behavioro Behaviorism (BANDURA)  observational learning  “social learning” “social cognitive learning” Watching others - Another Contemporary View : Context o IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENT (Bronfenbrenner)o Ecological perspective Microsystem - Where adolescent lives/environmentneighborhood, family, friends Mesosystem- Relationship between 2 or more microsystems relationship between parent and school Exosystem - Settings that an adolescent isn’t involved in but influences the adolescence devloplment (ex) parent’s work life/placework place climate could effect child by long hours, high stress from the parenting etc. Macrosystem  culture they live in (norms, laws etc.) Chronosystem  life events. Transitions during this time ex). parents divorce, moving to a new state, significant historical events (9/11 or WW2)- TODAY: o Still view adolescence as a problematic period in human lifeo Adolescent generalization gap: stereotyping of adolescents based on info about a limited, highly visible group of adolescence (ex) all bad news stories of adolescence in the news- Data collection: o Observe (naturalistic/field study), surveys and interviews, standardized tests (uniformed procedures for administration and scoringsame conditions, same grading ex. Personality or Intelligence test compare performance of one adolescent to another), Experience sampling method (ESM)electronic pagers/cellphones and ask what they are doing throughout daytrack MOODS throughout the day, physiological recordings (measure biological changes like heart rate, blood pressure etc. brain scanning to measure activity in brain during tasks), case study (extensive amounts of data on ONE person for a unique casecan’t generalize)o Correlational: detects relationship between 2 or more events or characteristics  see if relatedcorrelated does not mean causation  CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION  Can make predictions if 2 variables are relatedo Experimental: determines cause and effect Must conduct experimentso Cross sectional: studying different participants at the same time Different ages studied at the same timeo Longitudinal: study same individuals over a long period of timeo Ethical Considerations  Informed Consent - give details to parent about the study- Gain from parent or guardian- GET ASSENT FROM CHILD  use terms they understand, any questions Non harmful procedures Confidentiality except in times when:- Harm self- Harm others- They are being harmed (the researcher)LECTURE 2(Biological Changes) (Chapter 2)- Puberty (growth spurt, primary sex characteristics, secondary characteristics are the 3 changes)o Growth spurto Primary Sexual Characteristicso Secondary Sex Characteristics o Rapid physical maturation homronal and bodily changes in early adolescence o Become capable of sexual reproductiono Programed in your geneso Precocious puberty  starting puberty before age 8 (female) or 9 (male) Menarche (first female menstration) starts about a year after puberty starts- Determinants of Puberty:o Heredity Approximately 10-11o Hormones Already exist in body, during puberty escalating levels of hormones Androgens (testosterone) - men have more- 2 fold increase in girls- 8 fold increase in boys Estrogens (woman have higher estrogen then males) - 8 fold increase in girls- 2 fold increase in boyso Interaction of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonads (HPG axis) Hypothalamusresponsible for 4 F’s of survivalo Nutritional Status Especially for girls A certain amount of FAT LEPTIN hormone  Amount of fat /

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