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UConn CHEM 2443 - Chapter 1: Introduction

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Chapter 1: Introduction- Orgo became a defined science in the 19th century, but org compounds have been known and used for millennia.- Organic Chemistry: chem of C compounds- Line Notation: one line b/w each atom represents a single bond, 2= double bond, 3= triple bond- Structural differences, no matter how minor, can lead to sig changes in the physical propertiesof the compound- Alkaloid: N-containing compounds commonly found in plants- “Natural Products”—isolated from org compoundso Plants have been used as medicines thruout history Analgesic: reduces some types of paino Cinchona tress—treat malaria Contains quinine o Vit A—maintain healthy eyesight- Air—composed mainly of O2 and N2o Burns natural materials in airo C burned CO2o H burned HOHo Elemental analysis: det of empirical formula by trapping and weighing compounds- Eventually, chemists learned how to make new org. molecules rather than simply isolating and using those that were found in nature.o Isolation remains important source of new compounds.o Synthesis: idea of taking a comp and transforming it thru a series of chem rxns into another one- Vital Force Theory : all org compounds can arise w/ the operation of vital force inherent to living cellso Berzelius: Composed of only a dew selected elements, including C and H Subs obtained from living orgso Gerhardt: came up w/ VFTo Wohler: proved VFT wrong by showing that an org compound can be produced froma “nonliving” system Synthesized urea from chems not obtained in living systemso Berthelot: showed that all classes of org molecules could be synthesized VFT diappeared- Amines: compounds containing N2 (C derivatives of NH3)- Ethers: C—O—C linkage- Alkyl: a unit containing C and H atoms- Le Bel: when C appeared in org compounds, it was connected to 4 other atoms and the shape of the atoms around C Tetrahedral - Covalent Bond: bond formed by sharing 2 electrons- Lewis Acid: molecule that accepts an electron pair- Lewis Base: molecule that donates an electron pairChapter 1: Introduction- Orbitals: contain electrons o Interactions b/w electrons in orbitals control chem rxns and explain chem bonding- Chemical Structures:o Solid lines—bonds In 3D representations, indicates that a group in projected behind the planeo Dashed lines—interactionso Solid wedges—indicates that a group in projected in front of plane in 3D representations.o ‘n’ beside a bracket—# of repeating unitso Each point ( ) represents a C atoms If it isn’t C, then it’s indicated by the chem symbolo Various groups may be attached to C by a line (line notation) (—OH) Each C must have 4 bonds- Its understood that the remaining, unshown, bonds on C are H atomso Example: Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)- Stereochemistry: 3D rep that corresponds to the spatial relationship of atoms/groups- Enantiomers: chiral molecules that are=mirror images=of one another. o Furthermore, the molecules are=non-superimposable=on one another.  This means that the molecules cannot be placed on top of one another and give the same molecule.- Rxn Mechanisms: processes of creating and breaking bonds- Carbocations: (+) charged C- Carbanions: (-) charged C- Intermediate: a transient and usually high E molecule that’s formed initially and then reacts further to give a final, more stable product- Kinetics: rate @ which products are formed and reactants disappear- Certain wavelengths of light interact w/ diff org molecules.- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): determines #’s and types of atoms in an org compound- Mass spectrometry: bombarding org molecules w/ high E electron beam to induce fragmentation of that molecule and id-ing these frags to give structural formation- X-ray crystallography: identifies crystalline moleculeso When x-rays interact w/ a molecule w/ a distinct crystal structure, the resulting x-ray scattering patterns can often be analyzed to provide clues to its chem structure.- Polymer: large molecule made by bonding many indiv units

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