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Chapter 1 Introduction Orgo became a defined science in the 19th century but org compounds have been known and used for millennia Organic Chemistry chem of C compounds Line Notation one line b w each atom represents a single bond 2 double bond 3 triple bond Structural differences no matter how minor can lead to sig changes in the physical properties of the compound Alkaloid N containing compounds commonly found in plants Natural Products isolated from org compounds o Plants have been used as medicines thruout history Analgesic reduces some types of pain o Cinchona tress treat malaria Contains quinine o Vit A maintain healthy eyesight Air composed mainly of O2 and N2 o Burns natural materials in air o C burned CO2 o H burned HOH o Elemental analysis det of empirical formula by trapping and weighing compounds Eventually chemists learned how to make new org molecules rather than simply isolating and using those that were found in nature o o Isolation remains important source of new compounds Synthesis idea of taking a comp and transforming it thru a series of chem rxns into another one Vital Force Theory all org compounds can arise w the operation of vital force inherent to living cells o Berzelius Composed of only a dew selected elements including C and H Subs obtained from living orgs o Gerhardt came up w VFT o Wohler proved VFT wrong by showing that an org compound can be produced from a nonliving system Synthesized urea from chems not obtained in living systems o Berthelot showed that all classes of org molecules could be synthesized VFT diappeared Ethers C O C linkage Amines compounds containing N2 C derivatives of NH3 Alkyl a unit containing C and H atoms Le Bel when C appeared in org compounds it was connected to 4 other atoms and the shape of the atoms around C Tetrahedral Covalent Bond bond formed by sharing 2 electrons Lewis Acid molecule that accepts an electron pair Lewis Base molecule that donates an electron pair Chapter 1 Introduction Orbitals contain electrons Chemical Structures Solid lines bonds o o Interactions b w electrons in orbitals control chem rxns and explain chem bonding In 3D representations indicates that a group in projected behind the plane o Dashed lines interactions o Solid wedges indicates that a group in projected in front of plane in 3D representations n beside a bracket of repeating units o o Each point represents a C atoms If it isn t C then it s indicated by the chem symbol o Various groups may be attached to C by a line line notation OH Each C must have 4 bonds Its understood that the remaining unshown bonds on C are H atoms o Example Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Stereochemistry 3D rep that corresponds to the spatial relationship of atoms groups Enantiomers chiral molecules that are mirror images of one another o Furthermore the molecules are non superimposable on one another This means that the molecules cannot be placed on top of one another and give the same molecule Rxn Mechanisms processes of creating and breaking bonds Carbocations charged C Carbanions charged C Intermediate a transient and usually high E molecule that s formed initially and then reacts further to give a final more stable product Kinetics rate which products are formed and reactants disappear Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR determines s and types of atoms in an org Certain wavelengths of light interact w diff org molecules compound Mass spectrometry bombarding org molecules w high E electron beam to induce fragmentation of that molecule and id ing these frags to give structural formation X ray crystallography identifies crystalline molecules o When x rays interact w a molecule w a distinct crystal structure the resulting x ray scattering patterns can often be analyzed to provide clues to its chem structure Polymer large molecule made by bonding many indiv units 2gether

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UConn CHEM 2443 - Chapter 1: Introduction

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