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Learning Objectives for Midterm 1 Week 1 Part 1 Promoting Health Wellness 1 What are key concepts in the National Prevention Strategy e g strategic directions targeted priorities etc Create sustain and recognize communities that promote health and wellness through prevention Ensure that prevention focused health care and community prevention efforts are available integrated and mutually Strategic Directions Healthy and Safe Community Environments Clinical and Community Preventive Services reinforcing Empowered People Support people in making healthy choices Elimination of Health Disparities Targeted Priorities Tobacco Free living Preventing Drug Abuse and Excessive Alcohol Use Healthy Eating Active Living Injury and Violence Free Living Reproductive and Sexual Health Mental and Emotional Well Being Eliminate disparities improving the quality of life for all Americans Partners in Prevention Policy Maker Purchaser Employer Funder Data Collector and Researcher Health Care Provider Communicator and Educator Action Strategies Policy Systems Change Environment Communications and Media Program and Service Delivery Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 2 What are the different types of action strategies and how they are de ned Combination of Health Promotion Strategies Build Healthy Public Policy Make Public Laws and rules that support healthy behaviors Create Supportive Environments Create safe and satisfying physical and social environments in across the multiple setting in which people live work and play Strengthen Community Action Develop Personal Skills Reorient services Encourage people to get involved and take action in decisions that affect their community s health Provide support education and information to help people build skills to healthier choices Create services which change the focus from treating indicated and selected at risk populations to serves that also prevent risk and promote the health of all people Type Of ActionNat l Prevention StrategyOttawa Charter for Health Promo Policy ChangePolicyBuild healthy public policyOrganizational ChangeSystems ChangeRe Orient servicesCommunity InvolvementCommunications and MediaStrengthen community actionChange Setting Fam school work EnvironmentCreate supportive environmentsIndividual changeProgram and service deliveryDevelop Personal Skills 3 What are the three prevention categories as de ned by the Institute of Medicine IOM What are some examples of universal interventions Universal Prevention or problem condition Addresses the general public or a segment of the entire population without consideration of risk for developing a disorder Universal Populations are not selected according to risk characteristics and often include both low and high risk members Even though not explicitly considered in de ning universal populations three other criteria are commonly used to de ne this group Geography e g state city neighborhood Demographics e g age ethnic cultural membership gender Setting The setting is a speci c structural environment within which the population interacts Schools are the most common setting in which universal prevention is delivered but workplaces and communities are other examples Universal interventions can be conceptualized as arrayed along a continuum of approaches to change including those designed to reduce negative risk behaviors Ex Policies programs and practices are often de ned as environmental in the current language of prevention promote awareness of risks and or protective behaviors Ex Programs such as school prevention curricula and public media campaigns promote positive behaviors related to protective skills and opportunities Ex strategies that focus more on physical and behavioral health promotion than on prevention Selective Prevention Indicated Prevention Serves speci c sub populations whose risk of a disorder is signi cantly higher than average Addresses identi ed individuals who have minimal but detachable signs or symptoms suggesting a disorder 4 What is resilience and how is it related to healthy youth development Resiliency is the process in which individuals show positive outcomes despite adversity Also refers to a pattern of behavior father than an individual attribute The resilience construct is grounded in an ecological model that emphasizes the importance of factors extrinsic to the the individual along with key intra individual assets in promoting healthy youth development If one can exhibit resiliency during whatever adversity it shows there is a signi cant decrease in the potential dangers than those who do not experience resiliency 5 What are risk and protective factors and how are they related to connectedness Risk Factors elements or experiences in a child or adolescent s life that increase the likelihood of negative outcomes and decrease the likelihood of positive outcomes Children on the island of Kauai poverty low maternal education family instability single parenthood and health concerns were related to problems in adolescence and into adulthood Effects of risk are cumulative such that exposure to multiple risk factors at a single point in time or over time increases the likelihood of negative outcomes Protective Factors elements or experiences in a child or adolescent s life that decrease the likelihood of negative outcomes and increase the likelihood of positive outcomes Protective factors have been de ned as both bipolar and unipolar constructs Bipolar construct risk is at one end of the continuum and protection at the other Academic achievement is related to numerous positive outcomes whereas low achievement increases the likelihood of negative outcomes Unipolar construct associated with greater risk represents a continuum of an attribute but the absence or diminished amounts of the attributes are not necessarily Volunteerism and involvement in extracurricular activities are examples of a unipolar construct Participation in more extracurricular activities for example may be associated with better outcomes but not participating in these activities may not increase the likelihood of negative outcomes Despite what factors an individual encounters the dimensions of connectedness appear more important than characteristics in protecting youth against high risk The imbalance in risk and protective factors in the lives of adolescents are what causes the result of either positive or negative outcomes Youth may develop into competent adults despite numerous risk factors if there are

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UCSB ED 191W - Week 1 Part 1— Promoting Health & Wellness

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