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Study Guide for Final Quiz (#5)Gothic Architecture Terms:Ile-de-France: Compact region surrounding capital of France, Paris wealthiest and most populated of 27 regions of France. West Work: Monumental, west-facing entrance section of a carolingion, ottonjon, orRomanesque church. Exterior conjiots of multiple stories between two towers. Chevet: Extreme end of the chancel or choir; properly the round or polygonal port. Rose Window: Decorated circular window, otten glazed with stained glass radiating from the centre to form symmetric roselike pttern. Lancet: Narrow window with a sharp pointed arch typical of English Gothic Architecture. Trefoil: An ornament in the form of three arc arranged in a circle. Quatrefoil: Carved ornament having four foils arranged about a common centre, esp one used in traceryFlying buttress: Feature of Gothic construction, in which the lateral thrusts of a root or vault are taken up by a straight bar of masonry, usually sloping, carried on an arch, and a solid pier or buttress sufficient to receive the thrust. Umbrella vault: Vault that has ribs which fan out from a central support.Fan Vault: Concave conical vault whose ribs, of equal length and curvature, radiate fro the springing like the ribs of a fan. Choir: The part of a church where the choir sits. Normally the west part of the chancel. In medieval churho, it sat under the crossing or west of the chancel.Lady chapel: Major chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, on the axis of a church at its east end. Chapter house: Building in which chapter of the clergy meets. Place for business meetings of a religious or traternal organization. Collegiate Gothic: Style of Gothic revival architecture used for many college and university buildings.The Medieval City Terms:Bastide: Medieval fortified town, planned as a whole and built at one time for time for strategic and commercial purposes. Hanseatic League: Commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds andtheir market towns that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.Guild: Medieval association of craftsman or merchants, often having considerable power. Doge: The chief [magistrache] of Venice or [Genoar] Head of the Republic. Piazza: Open square or marketplace, surround by buildings in an Italian town or city Palazzo: In Italian cities, a large, separate dwelling, otten lavish- Chapter 12: The Metaphysics of Light: Medieval and Gothic Abbot Suger: Important man in both church and state. His genius grasped how he could appeal @ several levels to the dull mind by using the rib vault. He could createsoaring arches that drew the spirit of man up to heaven. In church, ppl were to have an experience at heaven on earth. What’s Unique about Gothic Arch?- Freedom given by the pointed arch (could be varied in width and still retain its original height, etc) - made it possible to treat the outside walls no longer as structures holding things up but as panels which could be almost entirely glazed. Cathedral could now be a lantern of glass. * pointed arch could coexist w/ the cruciform plan- Builders no longer had to assemble the structure over a series of cube-shaped units of space. *The space they were enclosing could now be widened or narrowed and could extend upwards. - Pinnacles on Gottresses are not just for spiky decoration, but also built up to counter the thrust of the nave walls Double Gothic Roof: Wood outside and stone vault beneath- Roofs became steeper w/ the advancements of vaulting- Still medieval cathedrals that shelter their hoisting gear between the two roots- In Chartres, a tritorium passage is cut into the thickness of the wall; Bourges Cathedral w/ its unique pyramid shape of nove flonked on each side by 2 aisles of decreasing height, is pertoratd right through the outside from aisle to aisle.- The paring down of solid walls meant that glass increasingly took over- Early Gothic Windows were simple lancets *ex: coutances, plate tracery (chartres & basilica of St. Francis at Assisi)- In 1201, Bar Tracery was invented: the glass was slotted into linear frameworks- stone mullions and window bars, carved into slim patterns as pieces of sculpture in their own right. *traceries not fully appreciated from the inside* But on the outside, take place in overall intricate pattern of lines and figures, which may cover entire front of a Gothic cathedral - Leading ideas end of 13th century found in England, whose Gothic period was to culminate in the staid up right dignity of the perpendicular of the east end of glovcesler cathedral- Decorated phase became more extravagant in the curvilinear styleLady Chapel at Ely (1321)- building set apart from the main cathedral in the mannerof a chapter house- Even in the purity of the perpendicular, where all the lines of the traceries are pulled upwards, straight and smooth within a vertical rectangular panel, there is more than an echo of the pishtags of Isfohon. - Fashions in Gothic were carried through Europe from Norway to Spain by themaster masons- In Germany, English influence was far-reaching- In the Rose windows, one of the most glorious architectural forms in Gothic architecture, patterns changed across the years from wheels to roses, from roses to flames- Trial & error played part in development of the vaultChartres- Classic example of early French Gothic-Basic shape built in 27 yrs, all but towers which were built centuries apart (simple octogorol south spine and more elaborate north spine-Gothic cathedrals belonged to the town built in competition w/ neighboring towns and out of civic pride. As @ St. Denis, much of the physical work was clone by the paronishes, peasants dragging the corts w/ stone from the quarries, tradesman, craftsman - Structurally, chartres provides classic 3-story model: an arcade (or row of arches),a middle row of arches (often low & w/ a walkway running around the inside of the church, called the tritorium, and on upper row (or clerestory) * Triforium runs inside the roof-space of the aisles and has no outlets to the exterior. *Between the windows are the flying buttresses, connecting w/ the piers of the vault –slimmer than Romanesque columns Beavais Cathedral- whose bishop suffered from the sin of pride, courted disaster: double-aisled choir (probably built by Eudes de Montrevil) Speaks valuably of ambition. First the root, then the tower fell. Rebuilt @ nearly 58 ft, it remains the highest Gothic vault- some countries emphasized vertically on the exterior-

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UW ARCH 150 - Study Guide for Final Quiz

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