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Mass CommunicationNewspapersRadioGuglielmo Marconi: Developed wireless telegraphySitcoms50s:-migration from radio to TV-ethnic: buyers of TV primarily on east coast- Beulah was the only show to feature African- American’s; Hattie McDaniel played maid to a white family-Amos n’ Andy: protested by civil rights groups because white actors painted themselves to look black-major shows: Leave it to Beaver60s:-Family: ABC, CBS-Rural: CBS; Big three were The Beverley Hillbillies, Petticoat Junction, and Green Acres and created by Paul Henning-Goofy: light-hearted; staple for baby boomers; Gilligan’s Island-Occult: ways to express something that cannot be explained; Bewitched-Military: increasingly popular after WW270s:-M.A.S.H: Korean war setting involving medical unit that saw through the tricks and scams of aggression. The finale was highest rated broadcast ever (60 million viewers).-Norman Lear: most successful sitcom producer of the decade; created spin-offs from Maude and The Jeffersons-Mary Tyler Moore Show: depicted modern gender roles in the workplace-Three’s Company: introduced homosexuality-Different Strokes: white father adopts 2 black kids- Good Times: Produced by Norman Lear, breakthrough sitcom that focused on race .A show that portrayed life in the ghetto, it was a major spin-off from Maude.-All in the Family: Produced by Norman Lear, Maude was a successful spin-off from this.80s-Present:-Cheers and Family Ties were two major shows of 80s-Race and gender introduced with The Cosby Show and The Golden Girls; Murphy Brown- most feminist show-Friend focus: Friends and Seinfeld-Family sitcoms still prosperTelevisionUHF: ultra high frequencyVHF: very high frequency (13 channels)MusicChuck Berry/ Buddy Holly: Pioneered of Rock and RollJerry Lee Lewis: Rock and Roll and Country singerFirst Rock and Roll Hall of fame: Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, The Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Elvis, Jerry Lee Lewis.Macintosh: only 10% of market share; Microsoft Windows shortly followed, allowing all computers to be GUI based..BitcoinJ201 Final Study GuideMass Communication Types-Intrapersonal: Communicating with oneselfInterpersonal (Dyadic): communicating with another; communication between two people who interact.Group: Interpersonal communication within groups between 3-20 people.Mass: Messages persuade and affect the behavior and opinion of the person receiving content.One to one: one individual communicating with another (one email to another)One to many: one individual communicating to multiple others (mass email)Many to one:Many to many: multiple individuals communicate with multiple others. (chat room)Models-Linear: Communicative events are isolated messages that flow from a single source to a single receiver.Holistic-: Communicative events are part of a whole ensemble of other events and structures.The Linear Model: The 5 W’s-Who says?-What in?-Which channel?-To Whom?-With What effect?Cultural (Holistic) Model: Modern Family is embedded in a cast web of meaning: other sitcoms, the state of the family in contemporary America, notions of heteronormativity, the politics of humor, etc.Transmission Model: Information is sent in some form from a sender to a destination (simple model)Growth-Reasons: democracy, marketing, need for mass-mediation in entertainmentNewspapers The Colonial Press- 1st newspaper: GermanyWhy in New England?: Because most settlers were small farmers who got little return on their investment and thus turned to seafaring commerce.Benjamin Harris: Published first American newspaper in Boston, Publick Occurances, Both Foreign and DomesticBoston Newsletter: 1st continuously published newspaper; John Campbell-about 4 pages; advertising on pages 1 and 4; opinionated articles and shipping news; cost 6 centsStamp Act: passed in 1765, required stamps to be purchased and placed on legal documents.Bill of Rights: 1st 10 amendments to the constitution. Many editors were subservient to political masters.First amendment: made it possible to write whatever you want.Alien and Sedation Acts: 1798; no protesting the government, deport foreigners, immigrants must reside in US for 14 years before voting or retaining citizenship. The Penny Press: The first penny paper was The New York Sun, published in 1833; followed by the New York Herald in 1835 founded by James Gordon Bennett Horace Greeley: founded the New York Tribune in 1841Why a penny?: -Technological Innovations: steam presses instead of mechanical presses; inexpensive machine-made paper instead of expensive handmade paper.-Industrial Growth: homemade goods began to be replaced by factory made goods. The penny press contributed to the sale of manufactured goods and then itself, which people could afford to buy.-Jacksonian Democracy: The election of Andrew Jackson as the seventh Presidentof the United States ushered in a populist, democratic phase in American politics.-Human Interest: Most papers claimed that they were neutral in politics and often carried very little political news, The New York Sun would often write, “The proceedings of Congress thus far, would not interest our readers.”Content: Often carried fiction; human interest stories News Agencies: To make the gathering of news more manageable, six New York dailies founded the Associated Press (AP), the first major wire service, in 1848. Yellow Journalism: A phase characterized by exciting human-interest stories, crime news, large headlines and more readable copy.Changes to society: -urbanization: people migrated to cities-increase in railroads-children attending school increases; illiteracy decreasedJoseph Pulitzer: owned The New York WorldWilliam Randolph Hearst: owned The New York Journal-Hearst was the model for Charles Foster Kane in Citizen KaneObjective Journalism: factual, introduced by Adolph Ochs.-The New York Times by OchsUPI: United Press International formed from 2 other news gathering services. -UPI competed with Reuters (British) and agency France- press (French)Magazines Four Giants of first half of 20th century: Saturday Evening Post, Reader’s Digest, Time, and Life Roger Fenton: First photojournalism assignment- Life magazine; covers the Crimean War in 1856. Bad Stuff- Newsweek publishes last print edition, 12/31/2012, single issues sales down 16%. No Saturday delivery.Radio Guglielmo Marconi: Developed wireless telegraphy Lee de Forest: Developed the Audion vacuum tube; detected/amplified received radio signalsJames Clark

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