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BA 396Exam #2 ReviewChapter 8: Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research (p. 287) 1. Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research.● Qualitative: provides insights and understanding of the problem setting; ○ objective: to gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations○ small number of nonrepresentative cases○ data collection is unstructured○ data analysis is nonstatistical○ outcome: develops an initial understanding● Quantitative: seeks to quantify the data and typically applies some form of statistical analysis; ○ objective: to quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest○ large number of representative cases○ data collection is structured○ data analysis is statistical○ outcome: recommend a final course of action* It is a sound principle of marketing research to view qualitative and quantitative research as complementary, rather than in competition with each other*Both forms of primary data2. What are focus groups? # of participants? Setting?● Focus group: an interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents● main purpose: to gain insights by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talk about issues of interest to the researcher● group size: 8 to 12 people● group composition: homogenous, respondents are prescreened● physical setting: relaxed, informal atmosphere● time duration: 1 to 3 hours● recording: use of audio cassettes and videotapes● moderator: observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator3. How are focus groups conducted?● By a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner4. Characteristics and roles of focus group moderators?During the interview, the moderator must: ● establish rapport with the group● state the rules of group interaction● set objectives● probe the respondents and provoke intense discussion in the relevant areas● attempt to summarize the group’s response to determine the extent of agreementCharacteristics:● Kindness with firmness: disciplined detachment with understanding empathy● Permissiveness: must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating● Involvement: must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement● Incomplete understanding: must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding● Encouragement: must encourage unresponsive members to participate● Flexibility: must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline and disregard distractions● Sensitivity: must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level5. What the steps in planning focus groups?1 Determine the objectives of the marketing research project and define the problem2 Specify the objectives of qualitative research3 State the objectives/questions to be answered by focus groups4 Write a screening questionnaire5 Develop a moderator’s outline6 Conduct the focus group interviews7 Review tapes and analyze the data8 Summarize the findings and plan follow up research or action6. What are the different types or variations of focus groups?● Two way focus groups: one target group listens and learns from a related group● Dual moderator group (most common): conducted by two moderators, one responsible for smooth flow of the session and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed● Dueling moderator: two moderators, who deliberately take opposite positions on the issue to be discussed; creates conflict/disagreement leading to discussion● Respondent moderator: moderator asks selected participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics● Client participant groups: client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group; not a good idea unless it’s a technical product needing clarification● Mini groups: consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5 respondents● Telesession groups: sessions by phone using a conference call● Online focus group: online chat room format7. Advantages and disadvantages of focus groups?Advantages (10 S’s)1 Synergism2 Snowballing3 Stimulation4 Security5 Spontaneity6 Serendipity7 Specialization8 Scientific scrutiny 9 Structure10 SpeedDisadvantages (5 M’s)1 Misuse2 Misjudge3 Moderation4 Messy5 Misrepresentation8. What are depth interviews?● unstructured, direct way of obtaining information● one on one basis, personal interview● 30 mins to one hour● interviewer attempts to follow a rough outline, but the specific wording of the questions and the order is influenced by the subject’s replies● probing is important in obtaining meaningful responses and uncovering hidden issues9. What are different question techniques? Explain each.● Laddering: the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics, find out consumer’s deep underlying psychological and emotional reasons that affect their purchasing decisions; create their “mental map” “why” questions● Hidden Issue Questioning: the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots”; not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns● Symbolic Analysis: attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites, to learn what something is, the researcher attempts to learn what it is not, ex. “what would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?” “without planes, I would have to rely on email, letters and telephone calls”-so they used an effective ad communicating that the airline will do the same thing thatFedEx does for a package10. How can an interviewer probe?● Ask respondents to ask themselves “what is important to me? what problems do I have? How do I wish I could live? What is my ideal world?”● Probing is effecting in uncovering underlying or hidden information● Probing is an integral part of depth interviews and is used in all depth-interviewing techniques11. Compare and contrast focus groups with depth interviews.12. What are projective techniques? Purpose? Techniques? Examples and explanation of each technique?● Projective techniques: an unstructured, indirect form of questioning that

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OSU BA 396 - Exam 2

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