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Study Guide -Ecosystems Lecture-98- Describe how latitude, altitude, and topography (East vs. West, North vs. South) can impact climate and biomes.EquatorAlways receives the most sunlight rayDirect rays= concentrated energyOblique rays= rays are spread outThere is evaporation and precipitation (tropical rainforest)30 North & 30 SouthDry airDesserts60 North & 60 SouthWet airForestTopography (landforms)Similar biome changes occur with latitude and altitude99-Describe the environmental conditions of mountainous habitats. Earths tilt can result in one slope getting more sunlight than another, resulting in the side that receives direct sunlight growing grass and the other side growing trees. Often south side is grass and north has trees because more direct sunlight on south resulting in dryness on that side and tree cant survive the dry seasons. 100-Describe the climate and of polar and tundra regions, as well as the dominant producers.PolarLow temp, low precipitationFairly stable, except at ice edgesDefined by ice, not by type of plantsPolar producers= Algae, mosses, lichens Tundra- only found in northern hemisphereLow temp but not as low as polar, low precipitationVery few treesPermafrost= layer of ice that never meltsTundra plants (round plants)= cushion clumps, fast reproduction during warm timeTundra & Polar animals= Slow metabolism, Antifreeze, Blubber (fat), Waterproof feathers, animals acquire certain behaviors to survive.-Forest Lecture-101- Describe climate conditions and locations of taiga, also know as boreal forests.Coniferous forests – cold, moderate precipitation (not as cold as polar or tundra)102- Distinguish between the environmental conditions of deciduous and evergreen forests, and describe the impacts of deforestation and fires.Deciduous- wetter, temp is warmer then evergreen forest.Evergreens- higher altitudes then deciduous (evergreens can photosynthesize all year around)Deforestation- by 1920 most of the forests were gone for agriculture. (Loss of nutrients, soil still nutrient-poor, soil erosion)recovery is very slow or often incomplete.Forest fires- they attempted to stop all forest fires. However, fires actually recycle nutrients, reduce insect damage, and thin trees.103- Outline basic forest structure, including the emergent layer, canopy, understory, shrub layer, herb layer, and forest floor.Top- Emergent layer (not many trees)Middle- Canopy layer Next- understory (big leaves, for photosynthesis) Next- Shrub layerNext- herb (huge leaves)Bottom- forest floor (limited light)104- Provide characteristic of tropical rainforests, including species diversity and soil characteristics. Close to Equator, High Temperature, High precipitationLight is limited Epiphytes grow on plants (producers) (on plants because they need to be higher than ground floor toreceive more sunlight)High biodiversity- wide range of animals High productivity (photosynthesis)Soils are nutrient poorNutrients closely cycled by organisms (dead organisms may remain on plants rather than falling to the ground)Producers hold most of nutrientsMany producers-Biome Patterns Recitation-105- Examine how physical characteristics impact the patterns seen in biomes. LightLight is electromagnetic radiation. Visible spectrum is 380 to 750 nm. Plants and aquatic producers are green (green light is reflected back to the human eye).Most abundant green pigment in producers is chlorophyll.Low light conditions- plants are often luscious green color.High light conditions- plants are often faded colors of green, maybe even yellow.WaterWater covers 71% of the worldProperties of water- liquid at 0 to 100 degrees CelsiusWater is polarWater is a good solventWater is transparentWindForces that generate air currentsChanges in temp., air pressure, atmospheric composition, earths rotation (coriolis effect)High winds in mountainsWind causes erosion in indirect or direct waysPlants adapt by- roots, grow low to surface Temperature Air is cooler at higher altitudes because atmospheric pressure and moisture decrease.106- Describe plant adaptations to various environmental conditions.Adaption’s that assist in plants surviving in cool temperatures.Rapid reproduction in warm periods, leaf hairs trap moist heated air, cushion plant shape maintains temperature, small leaves minimize heat loss.In deserts plants must have adaption’s to be able to survive in low levels of moistureLeaf hairs, small waxy leafs, gray colors (reflects light), rosette plant shape (round)107- Locate and map the major patters of human global land use.-Climate and Vegetation Laboratory-108- Investigate the relationship between climate and vegetation using different sources of data, including graphs, maps, and data tables.Climate-long termWeather-short termChanges in temperature and precipitation create seasonal changes109- Examine how topography influences climate, vegetation, and population distribution in Oregon.Mountainous regions receive less direct sunlight creating a number or different biomes and climates.Flatter ground receives more direct sunlight creating similar biomes.110- Analyze climate data in a figure and explain how and why climates differ between Newport and Burns Oregon. Newport is on the coast; meaning less change is temp and precipitation throughout year.Burns is farther east, over the Cascade Mountain range creating the rainshadow affect. Burns also receive drastic changes in temperature and precipitations throughout its different seasons.-Textbook Chapters 14, 8, 9-111- Explain general global patterns, including why plants appear green, the inevitability of change, the relationship between area and species, and the impact of rain shadows and latitude on habitats.112- Describe mountain zones, and characteristics on mountain producers.113- Compare and contrast the characteristics of trees in different forests.114- Provide specific examples of organisms that live on trees, and mark them n various manners.-Grasslands Lecture-115- Describe grasses and how their structures relates to dominance in grassland biomes. Grasses-(in family Poaceae)Drought tolerant. Can re-grow from base.Grasses also provide habitat (food, shelter, nesting materials)116- List the various names and locations of grasslands, including prairie, veld, steppe, papmas, and rangeland.Prairie- North America (short grass, mixed grasses-wheat, tall grass-corn) (East of Rocky Mountains-rainshadow)The farther east you go past the Rocky Mountains the taller the grass and

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OSU BI 101 - Study Guide

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