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Final Essay QuestionSome argue globalization has increased economic benefits for the third world, provided opportunities for immigrants to the US as well as facilitated cultural exchange. But has this exchange facilitated equality or inequality? Examine the topics of Domestic Work, Hawaiian Tourism, and Cultural Appropriation. Using the readings and lectures, examine how these topics reveal the inequalities of globalization and identify the steps towards a more equitable exchange.Paragraph 1: Intro/Thesis● Globalization has led to cultural exchange that benefits economies and migrations. It has also created inequalities for those who are affected by globalization, especially the immigrants and Asian minority groups. Through topics of domestic work, Hawaiian Tourism, and Cultural Appropriation, globalization creates inequalities for the third world, Hawaii, and immigrants, and steps can be taken towards more equitable exchange through a better understanding of the oppression and hardships faced by these groups.Paragraph 2: Domestic Workers● partial citizenship: they are not citizens, so they are unprotected by labor laws, paid below minimum wage, have no health insurance. Many are illegal immigrants, who do not get public services.● pain of family separation: these transnational families are separated, and it leads to emotional stress. To pay back for these emotional neglects, many often try to commodify their love through material goods, such as sending gifts or paying for college. This commodification of love harms the experiences of families.○ care chain: rich/white women buy reproductive labor as a commodity, and migrant filipina workers come to take care of the family. they leave their own families back at home, who are taken care of by domestic workers (who are too poor to afford migration). this often separates families.● contradictory class mobility: it is expensive to migrate out, like paying recruitment agencies. so, it is usually the skilled workers from higher class in society who can afford to migrate to developed countries to work. this means that they are going froma higher class at home to a lower class in the US. these domestic jobs do not require education/background, and no skill is gained.● unbelonginginess: they faced inequalities through the nativism that existed, politically and culturally. There were strict immmigration laws that kept families from joining easily (family seperation), and strict laws that give harsh consequences to illegals (expensive fines). they were also faced with nativism and racism, especiallypeople who blamed them for economic problems. this unwelcome feeling makes the workers unable to assimilate. ● Steps Towards Change: employers should abide by labor laws, advocacy groups should form a unionParagraph 3: Hawaii Tourism● globalization and free trade leads to cultural prostitution○ exploitation of land, language, dance, and culture; ○ all of the money goes to overseas corporations● harms natives (and environment)○ low wage jobs, poverty, ○ misrepresented in politics (more tourists than residents)○ crime rate is directly related to tourism; ○ US views Hawaii as a source of income and doesn’t give much respect to the natives (ex. bomb in hawaiian valley kept natives from celebrating bc of danger of bomb, but beaches and roads weren’t closed, dangers of bomb didn’t stop tourism)● tourism harms asian american identity○ commercial spread of Hula- It’s a misrepresentation of the reality of Hawaii○ makes women look sexual/open but it’s degrading● Steps Towards Change: stop visiting Hawaii (may not be an effective solution, but Trask’s main goal is to end tourism, so there should be more native sovereignty/representation in gov’t instead, and natives getting back land and political power)Paragraph 4: Cultural Appropriation● Culture is commodified into trends, but it is often misrepresented and harms the identity of asian americans○ racist love- it’s suppose to be positive, but it’s racist. It limits the role of asiansas a ideological caregiver (Oriental Monk)○ It’s a “western” representation of “eastern” culture○ it makes asian things look “foreign” and “oriental” on purpose● Cultural appropriation also shows the imbalance of power between colonized and ex-colonizers, because of the privilege that some groups hold while others don't.○ Yellow apparel- it’s ok when whites do it, but asians have to feel embarrassed or ashamed. Example: dot busters targeted hate crimes at people with bindis, but Coachella girls wear it as fashion without acknowledging the oppression ○ The dominant group is reinforcing the negative stereotypes of minority groups● However, when one culture is taking artifacts from another culture solely for their own consumption and benefit, they are solidifying their power over the other marginalized cultures. Due lack of culture within the United States and the rise of globalization, Americans often take, repackage, and sell artifacts from “ethnic” countries and label them as exotic and fashionable. Corporations in the fashion industry and media are culprits of cultural appropriation and gain mass profits from the sale of culturally-inaccurate goods. ● Steps Towards Change: move towards mutual exchange where both cultures are benefiting, educate others on the culture they want to exchange, recognize history ofpower relations between colonized and colonizer, become part of the anti-racist struggle/oppression● To eliminate this process of Exploitation, we need to increase the appearance of Cultural Exchange. Cultural Exchange is a reciprocal exchange of symbols and artifacts between cultures of equal power. We need to allow for respectful images from the East to travel to the West. If appropriate cultural exchange takes place, respectful and accurate Asian products will travel to our country. This allows for smart consumerism and the consumers will benefit from these products. They will view their purchases as legitimate and will in turn views Asians in a positive light. This is opposite to current times where people believe Geishas are prostitutes based on the Victoria Secret lingerie. ● Having accurate minority representation in the media also reduces the inaccurate portrayals of Asians caused by cultural appropriation. Accurate representations of Asians will decline the use of constantly forced-on stereotypes. It will decrease

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UMD AAST 200 - Final Essay Question

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