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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values We evaluate and choose a product based off of Chapter Objectives Degree of involvement Marketing message Purchase situation The Motivation Process Motivation Refers to the process that leads people to behave as they do Understanding motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do Occurs when a need a condition requiring relief is aroused Example Solo flex Ad Desired State and equipment used to get there Needs and Motivation Desired end state is the goal Personal and Cultural Factors combine to create a want one manifestation of a need Motivational Strength Degree of willingness to expand energy to reach a goal Drive Theory Biological needs that produce unwanted states of arousal Example Being hungry Expectancy Theory Behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcome Motivational Conflicts Goal valence Consumer will Approach positive goal Avoid negative goal Types of Motivational Conflict Approach Approach Two desirable alternatives Cognitive Dissonance one that is least likely to cause tension people have a need for order and consistency pick the Approach Avoidance Positive and Negative aspects of desired product Rationalization for the one you ended up buying Guilt of Desire Avoidance Avoidance Facing a choice with two undesirable alternatives Specific Needs and Buying Behavior Need for achievement refers to the desire to accomplish something Sometimes people will express a need for achievement with premium products that express success Luxury brands technology Need for affiliation is the desire to be with other people Products that express emotion and aid in group activities are relevant Alcoholic beverages sports bars beaver gear Need for power is the need to control one s environment Products that allow us to feel mastery over our surroundings and situation meet this need Muscle Cars Loud Boom Box Need for uniqueness is the need to assert one s individual identity Products that pledge to illustrate our distinct qualities meet this need Perfumes Clothing Nike design your own shoe Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs This exhibit illustrates Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs The hierarchy includes five levels 1 physiological 2 safety 3 belongingness 4 ego needs and 5 self actualization Marketers application of this hierarchy has been somewhat simplistic especially as the same product or activity can gratify different needs For example one study found that gardening could satisfy needs at every level of the hierarchy Physiological I like to work in the soil Safety I feel safe in the garden Social I can share my produce with others Esteem I can create something of beauty Self actualization My garden gives me a sense of peace Safety Chilean ad man behind car door in middle of desert Spanish ad for insurance company bubble wrapped car Consumer Involvement Involvement Perceived relevance of an object based on one s needs values and interests Involvement reflects our level of motivation to process information Involvement Continuum Because a person s degree of involvement can be conceived as a continuum consumption at the low end of involvement is characterized by inertia In this state decisions are made out of habit lack of motivation because the consumer lacks the information to consider alternatives To the contrary decisions can be very passionate and carry great meaning for a person In consumer situations of high involvement the consumer enters a flow state where the consumer is in an elated state of focus and concentration and loses track of time Flow State When Consumers are truly involved Sense of Control Concentration Mental Enjoyment Distortion of Time Types of Involvement Product Involvement Consumers level of interest in a product Cognitive of Emotional Dairy Queen helped to create the DQ Tycoon videogame which boosts involvement as it lets players run their own fast food franchise Marketers take steps to increase the likelihood that consumers get more involved in the message Boosting Message Involvement A marketer can boost a person s motivation to process relevant information via one or more of the following techniques Appeal to the consumers hedonic needs Ads that use sensory appeals like those we discussed in Chapter 2 generate higher levels of attention Use novel stimuli such as unusual cinematography sudden silences or unexpected movements in commercials Use prominent stimuli such as loud music and fast action to capture attention in commercials In print formats larger ads increase attention Also viewers look longer at colored pictures than at black and white ones Include celebrity endorsers to generate higher interest in commercials people process more information when it comes from someone they admire or maybe even Charlie Sheen Provide value customers appreciate Charmin bathroom tissue set up public toilets in Times Square that hordes of grateful visitors used Let customers make the messages Consumer generated content where freelancers and fans film their own commercials for favorite products is one of the hottest trends in marketing right now This practice creates a high degree of message response involvement Create spectacles or performances where the message is itself a form of entertainment T Mobiles Flash Mobs Consumer Values 1 Concepts or Beliefs 2 Pertain to Desirable End States or Behaviors 3 Transcend Specific Situations 4 Guide Selection or Evaluation of Behavior and Events 5 Ordered by Relative Importance Value Examples Creativity Spirituality Freedom Interdependence and Conformity Products Services attaining value related goal Core Values Values shared within a culture Japanese Security Americans Freedom Youthfulness Achievement Materialism Activity Enculturation learning the beliefs and values of one s own culture Acculturation learning the value system and behaviors of another culture Hoftstedes Cultural Dimensions One of the most widely used measures of cross cultural values is an instrument developed by Geert Hofstede This measure scores a country in terms of its standing on five dimensions so that users can compare and contrast values Power Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions like the family accept and expect that power is distributed unequally Individualism is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups Masculinity is the distribution of roles between the genders Uncertainty Avoidance is a society s tolerance for uncertainty and

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OSU MRKT 492 - Chapter 4: Motivation and Values

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