OSU MRKT 492 - Chapter 4: Motivation and Values

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Chapter 4: Motivation and Values Chapter ObjectivesWe evaluate and choose a product based off of:- Degree of involvement - Marketing message- Purchase situation The Motivation ProcessMotivation: Refers to the process that leads people to behave as they doUnderstanding motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do- Occurs when a need (a condition requiring relief) is aroused- Example: Solo flex Ad – Desired State and equipment used to get there Needs and Motivation Desired end state is the goalPersonal and Cultural Factors combine to create a want – one manifestation of a needMotivational Strength Degree of willingness to expand energy to reach a goalDrive Theory: Biological needs that produce unwanted states of arousal - Example: Being hungry Expectancy Theory: Behavior is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcome Motivational ConflictsGoal valence: Consumer will: - Approach positive goal- Avoid negative goalTypes of Motivational Conflict: Approach Approach: Two desirable alternatives- Cognitive Dissonance: people have a need for order and consistency; pick the one that is least likely to cause tension.Approach Avoidance: Positive and Negative aspects of desired product- Guilt of Desire: Rationalization for the one you ended up buying Avoidance Avoidance: Facing a choice with two undesirable alternativesSpecific Needs and Buying Behavior- Need for achievement refers to the desire to accomplish something. Sometimes people will express a need for achievement with premium products that express success. (Luxury brands, technology) - Need for affiliation is the desire to be with other people. Products that express emotion and aid in-group activities are relevant. (Alcoholic beverages, sports bars) (beaver gear)- Need for power is the need to control one’s environment. Products that allowus to feel mastery over our surroundings and situation meet this need. (Muscle Cars, Loud Boom Box) - Need for uniqueness is the need to assert one’s individual identity. Products that pledge to illustrate our distinct qualities meet this need. (Perfumes, Clothing) ( Nike design your own shoe) Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsThis exhibit illustrates Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The hierarchy includes five levels: 1) physiological, 2) safety, 3) belongingness, 4) ego needs, and 5) self-actualization. Marketers’ application of this hierarchy has been somewhat simplistic,especially as the same product or activity can gratify different needs. For example, one study found that gardening could satisfy needs at every level of the hierarchy:• Physiological—“I like to work in the soil.”• Safety—“I feel safe in the garden.” • Social—“I can share my produce with others.”• Esteem—“I can create something of beauty.”• Self-actualization—“My garden gives me a sense of peace.”Safety: Chilean ad, man behind car door in middle of desert, Spanish ad for insurance company, bubble wrapped carConsumer Involvement Involvement: Perceived relevance of an object based on one’s needs, values, and interests- Involvement reflects our level of motivation to process informationInvolvement Continuum: Because a person’s degree of involvement can be conceived as a continuum, consumption at the low end of involvement is characterized by inertia. In this state, decisions are made out of habit (lack of motivation) because the consumer lacks the information to consider alternatives. To the contrary, decisions can be very passionate and carry great meaning for a person. In consumer situations of high involvement, the consumer enters a flow state, where the consumer is in an elated state of focus and concentration and loses track of time. Flow State: When Consumers are truly involved- Sense of Control- Concentration- Mental Enjoyment- Distortion of TimeTypes of InvolvementProduct Involvement: Consumers level of interest in a product (Cognitive of Emotional)Dairy Queen helped to create the DQ Tycoon videogame, which boosts involvement as it lets players run their own fast-food franchise. - Marketers take steps to increase the likelihood that consumers get more involved in the message.Boosting Message Involvement A marketer can boost a person’s motivation to process relevant information via one or more of the following techniques:• Appeal to the consumers’ hedonic needs—Ads that use sensory appeals like those we discussed in Chapter 2 generate higher levels of attention.• Use novel stimuli, such as unusual cinematography, sudden silences, or unexpected movements, in commercials—Use prominent stimuli, such as loud music and fast action, to capture attention in commercials—In print formats, larger ads increase attention. Also, viewers look longer at colored pictures than at black-and-white ones.• Include celebrity endorsers to generate higher interest in commercials—people process more information when it comes from someone they admire (or maybe even Charlie Sheen).• Provide value customers appreciate—Charmin bathroom tissue set up public toilets in Times Square that hordes of grateful visitors used. • Let customers make the messages—Consumer-generated content where freelancers and fans film their own commercials for favorite products is one of the hottest trends in marketing right now. This practice creates a high degree of message–response involvement.• Create spectacles or performances, where the message is itself a form of entertainment. (T- Mobiles Flash Mobs) Consumer Values1. Concepts or Beliefs2. Pertain to Desirable End States or Behaviors3. Transcend Specific Situations4. Guide Selection or Evaluation of Behavior and Events5. Ordered by Relative ImportanceValue Examples: Creativity, Spirituality, Freedom, Interdependence, and ConformityProducts/Services= attaining value-related goalCore Values: Values shared within a culture (Japanese-Security)(Americans- Freedom, Youthfulness, Achievement, Materialism, Activity)Enculturation: learning the beliefs and values of one’s own cultureAcculturation: learning the value system and behaviors of another cultureHoftstedes Cultural DimensionsOne of the most widely used measures of cross-cultural values is an instrument developed by Geert Hofstede. This measure scores a country in terms of its standing on five dimensions so that users can compare and contrast values:• Power Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the

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