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Review Slides from Kun:Motivation• Homeostasis—state of internal equilibrium• Hull’s drive reduction theory• propose reducing drives is ultimate goal of motivated behavior• sensor--control center—response system—internal state• drive: state of internal tension that motivate an organism to release tension • Approach & Avoidance motivation • BAS (Behavioral Avtivation System)• roused by signals of reward or positive need gratification.• BIS (Inhibition)• responds to potential pain, non-reinforcement, punishment.• Evolution, Instincts and Genes• Cognitive Process• Incentive: stimuli pull an organism toward a goal• Expectancy x Value Theory• motivation=expectancy (of way obtaining goal) x incentive value (of goal)• Extrinsic: performing activity for external reward or avoiding punishment • Intrinsic: for its own sake• Psychodynamic views• hinded reason from early experience • sexual instincts• aggressive instincts• Maslow’s Need Hierarchy• Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem• Self-Determination Theory• 3 Fundamental Psych needs• competence, • motivation to master skills• relatedness• form meaningful bonds with others• autonomy• how they relate to intrinsic and extrinsic motivationHunger• Metabolism: body rate of energy utilization• Set point: biologic determined standard around body weight• signal that start and terminate a meal• glucose-body’s major source of usable fuel• cholecystokinin (CCK)-peptide produces feeling of satiety • signals that regulate appetite and weight• leptin- hormone secreted by fat cells, decreases appetite & energy spending• Anorexia Nervosa VS Bulimia• A: strictly• B: binge+purgingSex• behavior pattern changes over time, increase in pre-marital sex• Sexual Response Cycle• Excitement: blood, tension, excitement• Plateau: arousal builds• Orgasm: rhythmic contractions, leads to next step• Resolution: arousal decreases, genitals return to normal• Sex hormones additionally have organizational and activational effects.• Psychological factors can cause dysfunction• Sexual orientation• hormonal factors• environmental factors• gender roles (disproved)Social Motivation• positive stimulation, attention, emotional support, permit comparison (belief, feeling, behavior)• people differ in need of affiliation• environmental factors(natural disaster)—like earthquakeAchievement Goal Theory• Mastery• Ego.Emotions• Feeling states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological and behavioral reactions to events• Dual Emotional Pathways.• Theories of Emotion• James-Lange Somatic Theory of Emotion• bodily reaction determine subjective emotion• automatic arousal behavioral response• Cannon-Bard Theory of Emoiton• emotion+physiological do not cause one another, are independent to emotional-arousing situation• subcortical activity in thalamus • Two-Factor theory of emotion• intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling• but: cognitions derived from situational cues tell us how to label that phys. arousal• Cognitive-affective theory of Emotion• all emotion responses are related to cognitive

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UW PSYCH 101 - Review Slides

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