Unformatted text preview:

Module 2 LessonsWater Terminology• Intracellular Fluid Compartment - The fluid located inside your cells.• Extracellular Fluid Compartment - The fluid located outside your cells.• Interstitial Fluids - Fluids located between cells.• Electrolytes - Charged ions that conduct an electrical current in a solvent such as water.• Solvent - A liquid that acts as a medium in which substances dissolve. Water is considered the universal solvent.• Water Balance - The state whereby an equal amount of water is lost andreplenished daily in the body.• Insensible Water Loss - The water that is lost from the body daily through routine respiration and evaporation off the skin.• Dehydration - The state whereby there is too little water in the body due to too much water being lost, too little being consumed, or a combination of both.• Diuretics - Substances such as alcohol and some medications that cause the body to lose water.• Osmosis - The movement of a solvent, such as water, from an area of lower concentration of solutes across a membrane to an area of higher concentration of solutes. Osmosis balances the concentrationof solutes between the compartments.• Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - A hormone that directs the kidneys to concentrate and reduce the volume of urine produced in order to reduce water loss from the body.Hyponatremia - A condition of too little sodium in the blood.CompartmentalizationThe water in the body must be controlled, and one way to do this is to confine it in compartments.• Intracellular water, or the water found within cells of the body, accounts for more than 50% of the water in the body. Potassium is found in intracellular water.• Extracellular water, or water found outside the cells of the body, holds the remaining water. Sodium is found in extracellular water. Both potassium and sodium work to move water in and out of the cell through a method you can think of as a "pump" system.Extracellular water is divided into three subcompartments:• Intravascular, or the water within the vascular system. This subcompartment is the water in the blood vessels.• Extravascular, or water outside the vascular system. This subcompartment holds the water that surrounds the blood vessels.Interstitial, or water surrounding the cells and in between the cells. About 80% of extracellular water is categorized as interstitial.ExchangesWater moves from and through the compartments by means of various body exchanges. For example, when water enters or exits a cell, it takes small molecules of nutrients with it; water also helps move air to the blood plasma and exchanges the “oxygen in” for "carbon dioxide out."Using water as the exchange medium allows small molecules of nutrients to move throughout the body. From blood plasma to the intracellular area, water is the transport system for moving chemical supplies throughout the body.Some of the specific exchanges that occur when water moves through the body are:• Alveolar Air (lung) – Blood Plasma. The oxygen in is exchanged for carbon dioxide out.• Blood Plasma – Erythrocyte Fluid. Oxygen moves in or out, as well as carbon dioxide, water, and other small molecules, such as chlorides and carbonates.• Blood Plasma – Interstitial Fluid. Water moves in and out, along with inorganic ions and small organic molecules.• Interstitial – Intracellular. Gases and water are exchanged, as well as small organic molecules.When water flows throughout the body, it takes nutrients and/or other chemicals with it and works to facilitate the exchange of chemicals from one form to another and from one area of the body to another.Functions of WaterProviding the transport system to move nutrients and facilitate chemical exchanges is one of the important functions of water.In addition, water also keeps the body’s bones healthy, helps dissolve nutrients, assists in bio-chemical reactions, and helps regulate body temperature.• Bone Integrity - Bone is made of a protein matrix surrounded and hardened by calcium and phosphorus, and hydrated and hardened with water. Therefore, the hardness of bone is due in part to water, and water is an important contributor to the rigidity of the skeletal system.• Universal Solvent - Water is a universal solvent—most of the nutrients in the body are soluble in water—and it is this solubility that allows nutrients to be transported around the body efficiently by water. (Theone nutrient that is not water soluble, i.e., the fat nutrient, has to be processed differently by the body in order for it to work well, and thatis one of the reasons an overabundance of the fat nutrient can lead to health problems.)Bio-chemical Reactions - Water is a required reactant in many biochemical reactions—if water is not present, the reactions will not occur. As you will recall, in digestion, water is required to break bonds, and is important in providing the building blocks of nutrients to the body. Water is also important as a lubricant in the body. It helps to moisturize skin; it also prevents heat damage to joints by helping to dissipate the energy, or friction, that results from the bones of the joints rubbing together.Regulating Body Temperature. - The body perspires to cool down. Whenwater comes out of the skin and evaporates, it takes heat with it. (It takes approximately 1g of water to remove 6 Kcal of body heat.)Sources of WaterKnowing how important water is to the body, how do you supply all of the water the body needs?Obviously, drinking water or fluids is certainly one answer. However, drinking fluids is only one way of supplying water. The body also receives much of its water from food. The following chart shows how much water is contained in some common foods:Food%WaterMeat 65Banana76Bread 36Orange86Cheese40In addition to consuming fluids and food, the third source of water for the body is metabolic water. This is the water that is produced by the body through the metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins.The amount of metabolic water produced depends on the amount of nutrients burned. For example, burning 100 grams of carbohydrates produces 60 grams of metabolic water. Burning 100 grams of fat produces 107 grams of metabolic water, and burning 100 grams of protein produces 40 grams of metabolic water.Water BalanceFor optimal health and well-being, the amount of water coming into and going out of the body must be in balance.Lack of water is called dehydration. Having too much water in the body

View Full Document

UF FOS 2001 - Water Terminology

Documents in this Course
Load more
Download Water Terminology
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Water Terminology and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Water Terminology 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?