University of Mississippi_Bisc104

Unformatted text preview:

biologythe study of lifeproperties of lifecellular organization, homeostasis, metabolism, responsiveness, haredity, growth, reproductioncellular organizationbasic structure of all cells is the samehomeostasisinsides work to stay the same while the outside changesmetabolismall reactions that keep an organism alive and use energyresponsivenessreacthareditypassing of traitsgrowthchanging, developing, getting biggernine fields of biologybiochemistry, ecology, botany, zoology, phisiology,evolutionary theory, microbiology, genetics, cell biologybiochemistrychemicalsecologyinteractionsbotanyplantszoologyanimalsphisiologyhuman bodyevolutionary theorychangemicrobiologythe smallest forms of lifegeneticspassing of traitscell biologycellsparts of an atomproton, neutron, electronproton (where and charge)nucleus, positiveneutron (where and charge)nucleus, neutralelectron (where and charge)outer shells, negativeionan atom or group of atoms that have an electric charge because it gained or lost an electronionic bondgiving and recieving electronscovalentsharing electronspolaruneven sharing of electronspolar molecules and watercan dissolve in waternon polarequal sharing of electronsnon polar molecules and watercannot dissolve in waterfour properties that make water uniqueice floats, water absorbs and retains heat, cohe-sion, adhesioncohesionattraction between substances of the same kind tostick to one anotheradhesionattraction between substances of a different kindorganic compound (2 other names)carbon compound, biomoleculeorganic compound (definition)makes up all living thingsfour organic compoundscarbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acidscarbohydrates (building block)sugarproteins (building block)amino acidslipids (building block)fatnucleic acids (building block)nucleotidesenzymeprotein that speeds up biochemical reactionshydrogyn bondpositive charged hydrogyn with a negative charged moleculecell sizethe smaller the bettercell shapeShape reveals functionfour structures that all cells sharecytoplasm, DNA, ribosomes, cell membraneDNA in prokaryotescircularDNA in eukaryoteslinearcell theory (3)all living things are made up of one or more cells, cells are the basic units of structure adn function in organisms, al cells arise from existing cellsorganellea structure that carries out specific activities in-side the cellribosomessite of protein synthesissmooth ERbreak down toxic substances and makes lipidsrough ERforms vesicles around proteinsgolgi apparatuspackages and sorts proteinsmitochondriamakes ATPchloroplastcreates photosynthesiscell membranecontrols what goes in and out of the cellnucleusproduces ribosomesesstructure of the cell membranephospholipid bilayerconcentration gradientmore molecules on one side of the membrane thanthe otherosmosisdiffusion of water across the cell membranehypertonicwater comes in and cell shrinks and dieshypotonicwater goes out and cell gets bigger and diesisotonicwater goes in and out at the same rate4 membrane proteinscell surface markers, receptor proteins, enzymes, transport proteinscell surface markersname tag of the cellreceptor proteinssenses surroundings and reiceves messagesenzymeshelps with biochemical reactionstransport proteinsmovement into and out of the cellpassive transportrequires no energy, with flowactive transportrequires energy, against flow2 types of active transportvesicles, pumpsvesicle (active transport)sac that moves substances against concentrationpump (active transport)carrier protein that moves substances against con-centration gradient2 types of passive transportsimple and facilitated diffusionsimple diffusion (passive transport)passes directly through the membranefacilitated diffustion (passive transport)uses transport proteinsphotosynthesisbreaking down of organic compoundsATPenergy currencywhere photosynthesis occursthylakoid membranephotosynthesis pigmentchlorophllrate of photosynthesislight intensity, CO2 concentration, temperaturelight intensity (R.O.P)more light, more photosynthesisCO2 concentration (R.O.P.)more CO2, more photosynthesisTemperature (R.O.P.)extreme temperatures, slow ratefirst ETC of photosynthesis forms..oxygen and ATPsecond ETC of photosynthesis forms..NADPHcalvin cycleconverts CO2 to sugarcellular respirationbuilding of glucose into usable ATPfermentationrecycles NAD+genesegment of DNA5 parts of the cell cycleG1, S, G2, Mitosis, cytokinesisG1cell grows, builds organellees, continue carrying regular functionsSdna is copiedG2continues to grow, forms structures for cell divi-sionmitosisdivides nucleuscytokinesiscytoplasm dividesG1 checkpointcondition, health, and size are checkedG2 checkpointmistakes in DNA, proteins check that cell is large enough to dividemitosis checkpointensures that genetic material is evenly distributed3 reasons why cells dividegrowth and developement, repairing injuries, maintainence of larger cellsDNA (structure)double helix shapewhere sister chromatids are held togethercentromereprophase (mitosis)chromosomes begin to condensemetaphase (mitosis)chromosomes line up along the equatoranaphase (mitosis)chromosomes to opposite polestelophase (mitosis)chromosomes uncoilend result of mitosis2 genetically identical cellscytokinesis in plantsvesicles line up across the middle of the cellscytokinesis in animalspinched in half by belt of protien threadsreproductionthe process of producing offspringasexual reproductionsingle parent passes complete copy of its genetic infor to each of its offspringsexual reproductiontwo parents produce offspring that are genetically different from their parentshuman gamete (number)23human somatic cell (number)46autosomedoesnt have genes that determine the sex of an in-dividualsex chromosomesgenes that determine the sex of an individualhaploid nuberone set of chromosomesdipolid numbera set of 2 haploids4 asexual reproductionbinary fission, fragmentation, budding, parthenogenesisbinary fissionorganisms split in halffragmentationbody breaks to several piecesbuddingindividuals spilt off from existing onesparthenogenesisfemale makes a viable egg that grows into an adult with out being fertilized by a malemale gamete formationspermatogenesisfemale gamete formationoogenesiscrossing overhomoogous chromosomes exhange genetic mate-rialhomologous chromosoessimilar in shape and shapedominantexpressed allelerecessivenot expressedtest crossto determine if an individual exhibiting a dominanttrait is homozygous or heterozygous for that traitgenotypeset of alleles that an indvidual

View Full Document

University of Mississippi_Bisc104

Download University of Mississippi_Bisc104
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view University of Mississippi_Bisc104 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view University of Mississippi_Bisc104 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?