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Oceanography Final Study Guide/ In-Class Cheat SheetChapter 15: Marine Resources-physical resources: oil, natural gas, petroleum, building materials and chemicals-most valuable: petroleum and natural gas-physical resources are more difficult to extract at sea than on land-Marine energy: wind energy, fastest growing alternative to oil -biological resources: seafood, kelp, pharmaceuticals -non-extractable resources: transportation and recreationChapter 1: Origin of Oceans-Earth is a water planet, the oceans dominate the earth.-Scientific method: a systematic process of asking questions about out natural world. THEORIES CHANGE-Atoms on earth formed by stars; stars were formed by dusty spiral arms of galaxies constantly moving between H2 and He to heavier elements As they die, some stars eject these elements into space by cataclysmic explosions. -The sun and the planets, including Earth, probably condensed from a cloud of dust and gas enriched by the recycled remnants of exploded stars. -Earth formed by the accretion of cold particles.Chapter: 2 Early Exploration-Oceans didn't prevent exploration, native peoples everywhere the Europeans landed, e.g. the Polynesians-Captain James Cook (British Royal Navy) 3 expeditions, perhaps the first to use the principles of scientific investigation-The voyage of H.M.S. Challenger was the first extensive expedition dedicated exclusively to research-Eratosthenes of Cyrene- first to calculate the circumference of the earth-Pangea is the name of the super continentChapter 3 Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics-Layers: crust, mantle, core (chemical composition) or lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, core (physical properties)-existence and properties discovered by seismic waves which are generated by forces that cause earthquakes-Theory of Plate Tectonics: explains non-random earthquake patterns, jig-saw puzzle continents, magnesium patterns in surface rock, LITHOSPHEREIC PLATES MOVE, asthenosphere moves plates (convergent, divergent, transform) with heat-generated currents, explains the young sea floors: 1/23 of the age of Earth, centers of landmasses are oldestChapter 4: Ocean Basins-Ocean floor is less known than Mars-Two regions: Continental margins and ocean basins-Continental margin: shallow ocean floor nearest the floor, consists of continental shelf and slope-Continental crust is granite -Oceanic crust is basalt-Features of ocean basins: oceanic ridges, hydrothermal vents, abyssal plains/hills, seamounts and guyots, trenches -Hot spots, mariana trench is the deepest place on earth, island arcsChapter 5: Ocean Sediments-Composed of particles of land, biological activity, chemical processes and space-sediment is thickest at continental margin, thinnest over active ocean ridges-Terrigenous sediments originate on continents and islands: quartz (sand on the beaches) clay (suspended in water farther out from the beach)-Biogenous sediments composed of remains of once living organisms-Calcium carbonate: foraminifera, coccolithosphore-ooze: benthic sediment that is 30% skeletal remains-Hydrogenous sediments are precipitated directly from seawater.-Cosmogenous sediments, the ocean's rarest, come to the seabed from spaceChapter 6: Water-made up of H20, polar molecule, bond angle expands when temperature drops-Ocean water is usually layered by density, with the densest water on or near the bottom. The ocean is density stratified. Dense cold and salty water underlies less dense warm and fresher water. (thermocline, halocline, pycnocline)-Sound travels faster in water, light travels slower-Antarctic Bottom Water is the deepest and densest-Carbonic Acid-Water has a very high heat capacityChapter 7: Atmosphere and Ocean-Coriolis Effect: the right rotation of airflow in the northern hemisphere and the right rotation in the southern hemisphere-The atmosphere circulates in six large circuits-The ocean doesn't freeze or boil because of the atmospheric circulation-Air Flow: Eastern Boundary Current-Canary, Benguela, w. AustralianWestern Boundary Current: Gulf StreamChapter 8: Currents- Surface currents affect the uppermost 10 percent of the world ocean. The movement of surface currents is powered by the warmth of the sun and by winds. Water in surface currents tends to flow horizontally, but it can also flow vertically in response to wind blowing near coasts or along the equator. Surface currents transfer heat from tropical to polar regions, influence weather and climate, distribute nutrients, and scatter organisms.Chapter 9: Waves-Waves transmit energy, not water mass, across the ocean’s surface, Wavelength determines speed, longer waves travel faster-Diurnal: occurring once every 24 hours-Wind waves can be deep-water waves if the water is more than half their wavelength deep. The waves of very long wavelengths are always in “shallow water” (water less than half their wavelength deep). These long waves travel at high speeds, and some may have great destructive power-Ocean waves are orbital waves in which water molecules move in closed circles (orbits) as the wave passes-Water displacement causes tsunami and seismic sea waves. Unnoticeable in the open sea, tsunami rush ashore like a sudden and very high onrushing tide. These huge shallow-water waves are among the most lethal of our planet’s natural phenomena.Chapter 10: Tides-longest wavelengths in the ocean, caused by a combination of the gravitational force of the moon and the sun, the motion of Earth, and the tendency of water in enclosed ocean basins to rock at a specific frequency- never free of the forces that cause them and so act in unusual but generally predictable ways-The rise and fall of the tides can be used to generate electrical power, and are important in many physical and biological coastal processesChapter 11: Coasts-Erosional coasts- Natural rock bridges, tall stacks, and sea caves-Depositional coasts- beaches-Coral reefs and estuaries are among the most complex and biologically productive coasts. Human interference with coastal processes has generallyaccelerated the erosion of coasts near inhabited areas-Salt marshes and estuaries are among the ocean's most productive habitats-Rocky intertidal communities are among the ocean's richest and most diverse-Except for vent communities associated with mid-ocean ridges, the deep seabed is the most sparsely populated benthic habitat due largely to a limited food supplyChapter 15: Pelagic Communities-organisms that drift or swim-benthic

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CSU NR 150 - Final Study Guide

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