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Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior as a result of experienceLearning // Process of Association - Two stimuli (classical conditioning)- Response and consequence (operant conditioning)- Others' response and consequence (observational learning)Pavlov's Experiments - Physiological studies of digestive process- Why did the dogs begin to salivate before food was placed in their mouths?Process of Classical Conditioning // Before conditioning UCS -> UCR | Neutral stimulusProcess of Classical Conditioning // During and After Neutral stimulus -> UCS / UCRCS -> CRConditioning Principles -Acquisition: temporal contiquity (CS presented .5 secs before UCS)-Extinction: CR weakens without pairing-Spontaneous recovery: Reappearance of CR after rest period-Generalization: CR triggered by similar stimuli-Discrimination: No CR to dissimilar stimuliLearning // The Role of Cognitive ProcessesFor many animals, cognitive appraisals important for learning- First, 2 events must occur in close temporal contiguity- Then, animals learn to predict the 2nd based on the 1st (cue)- What is learned is the expectation of a UCSLearning // The Role is Biological Constraints Each species has a set of biological predispositions- Rats learn association between food and illness- Rats fail to learn association between sounds and illnessHumans also learn taste aversionsPredators have been conditioned to avoid preyApplications of Classical Conditioning Drug abuse- Classical conditioning may underlie some cravings-Ex.: smokers' cravings - bars, other smokers, morning cup of coffeeAversive conditioning (Antabuse)Watson, Little Albert, Phobias (see image)Learning // Systematic Desensitization Treatment for common phobiasComponents -Anxiety hierarchy -Relaxation trainingProcess of counterconditioningNature of Operant Conditioning A voluntary response becomes reliably emitted when followed by a consequence-Classical conditioning: respondent, involuntary behavior-Operant conditioning: operant behavior that actively operates on the environment to produce a consequenceOperant Conditioning // Role of consequences Thorndike's Law of Effect -rewarded behavior likely to recur -behavior that is not reworded likely to drop outShaping -reward "approximations" -ignore other responsesOperant Conditioning // Reinforcers Reinforcer: any event that increases the frequency of a response- Positive (pleasant stimulus)- Negative (removing unpleasant stimulus)- Primary (innately satisfying)- Secondary (learned)Examples of Negative Reinforcement -Taking aspirin to relieve a headache- Leaving a theater if the movie is bad-Smoking to relieve anxiety-Saying "uncle" to stop a fight-Feigning a stomach ache to avoid going to school-Begging/NaggingReinforcement Schedules Continuous reinforcementPartial reinforcement schedules- Fixed-ratio (set number of responses, i.e. hourly wage)- Variable-ratio (unpredictable number of responses, i.e. gambling)- Fixed interval (time interval after reinforcer, i.e. salary)- Variable-interval (varying time intervals; independent of behavior)Fixed-ratio set number of responses (every nth behavior)Variable-ratio unpredictable number of responses/behaviorsFixed-interval time interval after reinforcer (every nth period of time)Variable-interval varying time intervals (independent of behavior; unpredictable length of time)Reinforcement Schedules (Broken Down) RATIO / INTERVALbehavior / timeFIXED / VARIABLEregular / unpredictableExamples of Reinforcement Schedule Types -Buying lottery ticket and winning (variable-ratio)-Getting an allowance every Saturday (fixed-ratio)-Earning $5 for every lawn mowed (fixed ratio)-Playing slot machine (variable ratio)-Checking email (variable-ratio)-Getting 10 points extra credit for each essay written (fixed ratio)-Calling mechanic to see if car's fixed yet (variable interval)-Batter gets a hit every 3rd time at bat (variable ratio)Effects of Punishment on Behavior -negative reinforcement: increases frequency of behavior-punishment: temporarily decreases behavior (in presence of punisher)-undesirable side effects of punishment -fear of punisher and increased aggressionApplications of Operant Conditioning -computer-assisted instruction-token economy (i.e. chore list with stickers)-behavior modificationProcess of Observational Learning - Observant conditioning assumes all behavior performed before reinforcement- observational learning can be vicarious -modeling; imitation; direct, vicarious reinforcementBandura's Bobo Doll Study -children who observe aggressive model more likely to imitate behavior, especially if rewarded-importance of model's consequences -modeled behavior learned -reinforcement or expectation central in learningApplication: Media Influences-researches investigate the role of TV on behavior-these data typical findings for antisocial behavior-similar effects for prosocial behaviorMemory // Process and System Process: -encoding-storage-retrievalSystem:-sensory memory-short-term (working) memory-long-term memoryInformation Processing Model (see notes) |--------------------------Unconscious Processing----------------------------|External events ---sensory input---->sensory memorysensory memory----encoding--->working/short term memory '---encoding-->long term memoryshort term memory <-------retrieval-----------------------------'*Encoding Processes Automatic -occurs without awareness -doesn't interfere with thoughtsEffortful Processing -requires attention and effort -strategies facilitate encodingRehearsal conscious repetition aids retentionspacing effect indicate distributed practice beneficial*Serial Position Effect information from a list not equally recalledPrimacy effect (ex. recalling Presidents)Recency effect*How Information is Encoded Encoding ----- Meaning Imagery Organization / \ Chunks HierarchiesChunks=SSN, area codesHierarchies=botanical groupsStorage // Sensory Memory and Short Term Memory Sensory Memory--inconic memory (visual stimuli)--echoic memory (auditory stimuli)--information retained 3-4 secondsShort-term Memory--capacity limited (7 +/- 2 bits) 5-9--less than 20-30 seconds in durationShort Term Memory Decay (see Table) ...Long-Term Memory Physiological Basis-experience leads to increased activities in neural pathways-neurotransmitters (serotonin) released during leaining-long-term potentiation: synapses become more efficient at transmitting informationStress hormones implicated in formation of flash-bulb memoriesMemory

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Redlands PSYC 100 - Learning

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