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MKT 319Exam 2 Study GuideTextbookChapter 8Causality When the occurrence of X increases the probability of the occurrence Y Conditions for causality1. Concomitant variation is the extent to which a cause, X and an effect, Y, occur or vary together in the way predicted by the hypothesis under consideration 2. Time order of occurrence condition states that the causing event must occur either before or simultaneously with the effect (not afterwards)3. Absence of other possible causal factors means that the factor or variable investigated should be the only causal explanation Independent variables: Variables that are manipulated and whose effects are measured and compared (price)Dependent variables: Variables, which measure the effect of the independent variables on the test unit (sales, profit)Extraneous variables: All variables other than the independent variables that affect theresponse of the test units (store size, location)- History specific events that are external to the experiment but occur at the same time as the experiment - Maturation changes in the test units themselves that occur with the passage of time- Testing effects caused by the process of experimentation. Typically, these are the effects on the experiment of taking a measure on the dependent variable before and after the presentation of the treatment - Instrumentation changes in the measuring instrument, in the observers, or in the scores themselves - Statistical Regression occurs when test units with extreme scores move closer to the average score during the course of the experiment- Selection bias the improper assignment of test units to treatment conditions- Mortality the loss of test units while the experiment is in progressInternal validity: Refers to whether the manipulation of the independent variables or treatments actually caused the observed effects on the dependent variables. Control of extraneous variables is a necessary condition for establishing internal validityExternal validity: Refers to whether the cause-and-effect relationships found in the experiment can be generalized. To what populations, settings, times, independent variables and dependent variables can the results be projectedExperimental designs: The sent of experimental procedures specifying (1) the test units and sampling procedures, (2) independent variables to be manipulated, (3) dependent variables are to be measured, and (4) how to control the extraneous variables - Pre-experimental designs (one-shot case study, one-group pretest-posttest) do not employ randomization procedures to control for extraneous factors - True experimental designs (Pretest-posttest control group, posttest-only control group) the researcher can randomly assign test units to experimental groups and treatments to experimental groups - Quasi-experimental designs (time series) design result when the researcher isunable to achieve full manipulation of scheduling or allocation of treatments to test units but can still apply part of the apparatus of true experimentation Demand artifacts Responses given because the respondents attempt to guess the purpose of the experiment and respond accordingly Test market Carefully selected parts of the marketplace that are particularly suitable fortest marketing Chapter 9Measurement Assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre specific rules Scaling Creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located Scale characteristics - Description The unique labels or descriptors that are used to designate each value of the scale. All scales have descriptions- Order The relative sizes or positions of the descriptors. Denoted such as, greater than, less than, equal to. - Distance Absolute differences between the scale descriptors are known and may be expressed in units- Origin The scale has a unique or fixed beginning or true zero point Primary scales of measurement- Nominal A scale whose numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects (numbering of football players)- Ordinal A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate therelative extent to which some characteristic is possessed. Thus, it is possible to determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object. (Quality rankings, ranking of teams in a tournament)- Interval A scale, which the numbers are used to rank, objects such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the characteristic being measured. (Temperature)- Ratio This is the highest level of measurement. It allows the researcher to identify or classify object, rank-order he objects and compare intervals or differences. It also is meaningful to compute ratios. (Age, income, sales) Comparative scales Scaling techniques in which there is direct comparison of stimulusobjects with one another- Paired comparison A comparative scaling technique in which a respondent is presented with 2 objects at a time and asked to select one object in the pair according to some criteria. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. (Coke vs Pepsi)- Rank order A comparative scaling technique in which respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion (ranking brands from 1 to 10)- Constant Sum Respondents are required to allocate a constant sum of units, such as points, dollars, chits, stickers, or chips among a set of stimulus objects with respect to some criterion (giving a certain amount of ‘points’ to each brand)Chapter 10Non-comparative scales One of two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other objects in the stimulus set. - Continuous rating scale A measurement scale in which respondents rate the object by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other (reaction to TV commercials)- Likert scale Five response categories ranking from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’ which require respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus object (measurement of attitudes)- Semantic differential A 7-point rating with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning (company

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MSU MKT 319 - Exam 2

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