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Q: What do we mean when we talk about hypothesis and theory in science? 1. What kinds of questions can science answer?What do we mean when we talk about hypothesis and theory in science? How does this differ from the use outside science? A:Hypothesis = statement that is testable and falsifiable -- The hypothesis of the researchers IS THERE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON HEART PATIENT COMPLICATIONS WHEN THEY ARE PRAYED FORTheory: theory is an explanation that is supported by a large body of evidence 2. What is the difference between independent and dependent variables? Are controlled experiments the only valid scientific experiments? Independent variable - the factor that is being changed in a deliberate way(the caffeine consumption) Dependent variable – the outcome that may “depend” on the caffeineThe people who are being prayed for (experimental group) independent variable - PRAYER. ALSO THAT IT’S A BLIND RANDOM STUDY. DOUBLE BLIND – CUZ THE PATIENTS DON’T KNOW WHICH GROUP AND THE DOCTORS DON’T KNOW.The outcome/COMPLICATIONS of the people who were not being prayed for are the dependent variable3. If you were exploring in the rainforest and you found some green stuff on a rock, how could you tell if it was a living thing or not? 4. 5 things that make something a living thing: 5. 1. Growth 6. 2. Reproduction 7. 3. Homeostasis – (ex heating your house when cold)8. 4. Sense and response to sunlight – (ex plants grow towards sun) 9. 5. Obtain and use energy – process of metabolism10. What are the building blocks and functions of carbohydrates?Lipids?Nucleicacids?Proteins? carbs – sugars and starches (building blocks r –monosaccharide’s like glucose, fructose, glactose)Lipids – (fats oils and waxes and sterols) – not made of building blocks, two big groups, both hydrophobic - Proteins – building blocks r amino acids - Nucleic Acids – dna and rna – nucleotides 11. Do energy drinks live up to the hype? Based on their ingredients what do they do/not do? could improve permofromance and concentration – Cannot really improve general well being or mental health – can stimulate metabolism and help with speed – cannot help u be physically an mentally fit. . it does have some vitamins and energy and stimulants that do help your nerves system but doesn’t live up to all the hype  cant help mental well being. Physiology of all this: Energy (from all the sugar)  ability to do work Vitamins – breaks things down and speeds up reactions – the enzyme canntwork if u don’t have a specific vitamin – some are co factors for some enzymes. (vitamin b we have to take in we don’t make it ourselves) Amino Acids – helpts to build protein (taurine) Caffeine – stimulant Preservativ – no nutritional value 12. How do we know that DNA is the genetic material? Construct a timeline of DNA discoveries including the people and their experiments. (see ataras notes for Oswald avery etc)James Watson and Francis Crick – no scientific work is done in a vacuum – it wasn't just them – different discoveries over many years Watson – American scientist Watson was a prodigy and younger than crick For a long time ppl thought proteins were the carrier of the genetic material. – they knew DNA was made up of nucleotides containing sugar a phosphate group and one of four bases: A,T,C,or G First they took inspiration for Pauling- who knew that the structure was a single stranded twisting helix (wrong) W and c began to start building their own models Rosalin Franklin – she created x ray picturs of DNA, wilkins was peer also studying dNA structure – he showed the x ray pic to w and c. Then w and c realized that the molecule was made of two chains of nuclotiedes. Each fromed a helix., as franklin found, but they spiraled in opp directions. Erwin chargafff- found that DNA contained equal amounts of adenine and theymineand equal amounts of guanine and cytosine. – now Watson was able to pair it correctly The final structure was very largely accepted – Watson crick and Wilkins published the paper. Franklins work and commitment was ignored (possibly cuz she was a girl) Homework: The secret of Photo 51 – youtube Crick and Watson – as they stive to do the work franklins work paves the way use her findings and knowledges without her knowing. Rosalind Franklin – responsible for the x ray photo - born in London wealthy family – she was very good at math and went to st. pauls school – strong tradition with preparing girls for a career. Watson publishes the double helix depicts a race to determine the structure of DNA,Introduces Rosalind Franklin (if not for james watsons book no one would have known about her) During this time the Natzis are on the march and the Franklins are active in finding safe haven in England. Rosalind finished a year early from hs and arrived in Cambridge University in 1938 – introduced to X ray crystallography – hidden atomic structure of matter its its crystal form. Its possible to calculate the 3dimensional form of even them most complicated molecules. She joined the war effort doing research and her experiments led to a better gas mask. Great fashion, liked to cook etc. she perfected her teqnique of x ray diffraction. Gaining an international reputation, and she was speaking at conferences. Health wise she had over exposure to x rays and was upset. Shes offered a position at Kings College in London. They switched her from proteins to DNA. Oswald Avery – avery experiments show the characteristics of one organsims could be tranfered to the other  this was DNA  not universally accepted  known to be made of sugar bases and phosphate group. Wilkins – took some of the first x ray diffraction images – confusion over who was in charge franklin or wilkins – they did not get along Watson wanted to study the gene and knew it was the secret of life. Wilkins showedhim one of the images. Within months of her arrival at kings rosy was doing an amazing job and had superb pictures.ROSY She discovered that there are 2 forms of DNA. : A: drier more crystalline form. B: wetter and how DNA occurs in living cells  key clue in finding out the structure – u can see the helix and notes it and presents her discovery  NOVEMBER 1951. She was concentrating most on the A form cuz of the greater wealth that we would get from it. Watson was they’re listing sent from crick. W and C were planning on using “modelbuilding” as

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NYU LISCI-UF 101 - Study Guide

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