Unformatted text preview:

What is the difference between satellites and radars?Satellite- view of the clouds from spaceRadar- views precipitation from the groundHow is wind direction defined?it is defined by the direction that the wind is coming from.How do winds blow about high and low pressure systems in the Northern Hemisphere?High- winds blow clockwise and outwardLow- winds blow counterclockwise and inwardWhat is pressure and how does it change with height?Pressure is force/area. Atmospheric pressure ALWAYS decreases with height. 1 mb with every 10 mWhat is an inversion?Layer in which the temperature increases with heightWhat is latent heat?energy absorbed or released during a phase change. "hidden" energyWhat is advection?transfer of heat (or moisture) through horizontal movements of air.What is saturation? What mathematical relationships are true at saturation?evaporation rate= condensation ratevapor pressure= saturated vapor pressurerelative humidity= 100%What is relative humidity? How can it be changed?Ratio of water vapor in the air to that required for saturation (=vp/svp) x 100%. A higher relative humidity means closer to saturation.To increase relative humidity- add moisture to the air (increase vp)- cool the air (decrease SVP)To decrease relative humidity- remove moisture from the air (decrease VP)- warm the air (increase SVP)What is dewpoint? Why is it useful?The dewpoint temperature is the temperature at which saturation occurs. The higher the dew point means always there is more moisture in the air.How do clouds form?First, we need rising air either from surface heating/ convection, uplifting by mountains, surface convergence or fronts. Second, the amount of water vapor in the air does not change as the air rises. The relative humidityincreases, air eventually rises high enough (cools enough to become saturated (RH=100%) and a cloud forms.How do you read a station model?See example on labs.What is a constant pressure surface?assume uniform surface pressure and temperature. Constant pressure surfaces are parallel to constant height surfaces.How are low and high heights related to temperature and weather?High Heights- warm air below pressure surface- analogous to high pressure on constant height surfaces- a high is highLow Heights- cold air below pressure surface- analogous to low pressure on constant height surface- a low is a lowHow do you identify ridges and troughs?Ridge: an area of higher heights or pressuresTrough: an area of lower heights or pressures- can not only look at the shapes of contours, but the values.What is the pressure gradient force? In what direction does it act?PGF is the change in pressure/ distance. Tightly packed isobars mean strong pressure. PGF is directed from areas of high pressure to low pressure or higher heights to lower heights on constant pressure surface. Acts perpendicular to isobars (height contours).How does the pressure gradient force influence the wind speed?Causes the wind to blow. The stronger the PGF, the faster the wind blows.What is a cyclone?An area of low pressure, center of a cyclone is the center of a low.What is an anticyclone?a large atmospheric circulation system around a high with winds flowing clockwise in northern hemisphere. Forms from air masses cooling more then their surroundingsHow do you determine the surface wind direction from isobars?wind direction crosses isobars at an angle, they do NOT flow parallel because of friction. Surface wind direction is a right angle with CF. Coriolis force is to the right of wind direction.What is convergence? Divergence?Convergence= when air flows together- wind converges into low pressure systems at the surface- counter-clockwise in NH- air rises, cools, water vapor condenses forms clouds and precipitation- air diverges aloftDivergence= when air flows apart- clockwise- air sinks, dries out, inhibiting cloud formation, air converges aloftHow are convergence and divergence related to the development of surface highs and lows?Divergence decreases surface pressure- subtract molecues from air columnConvergence increases surface pressure- adds weight to columnWhy is vertical motion important?faster rising air caues clouds and can cause more interesting weatherWhat is a jet stream? Where are jet streams found? What causes jet streams?The jet stream is a river of fast moving air in the upper atmosphere. It existsnear the tropopause level (about 10 km) and its flow is parallel to height contours. Flow is not the same speed everywhereWhat is an air mass? How are they classified?A large body of air with similar temperature and moisture concentrations. Horizontal only. Air masses form over flat, homogeneous regions of the earth's surface. Boundaires are around low pressure called fronts, centers are high pressure systems. They are classified based on moisture and temperature (two letters)Moisture- Continental (c)- Dry- Maritime (m)- moistTemperature- Tropical (T)- warm/ hot- Polar (P)- cool/cold- Arctic (A)- frigidWhat is a front?It is the boundary between air masses of different densities.- warm air is less dense than cold air- moist air is less dense then dry air- FRONTS are NOT airmasses- fronts strongest at the surfaceHow are fronts represented on weather maps?Lines with symbols pointing in direction front is movingcold front= blue with triangleswarm front- red with half circlesstationary front= combination cold/warmoccluded front= purpleWhat is a dryline?seperates the mT air (to the east) from the cT air (to the west). Typically found in KS/OK/TX during spring.What is a mid-latitude cyclone?also called an extratropical cyclone. It is an are of low pressure where the center of cyclone is center of low. It usually lasts several days to a week+ and can be as large as 1000+ miles across. Weather includes thunderstormsand tornadoes, blizzards and ice storms, widespread snow and rain.Where is warm air and cold air found with respect to a surface low?Warm air is usually east and cold is usually southHow do Mid-Latitude cyclones influence the weather?brings cold air southward and warm air northward, provides precipitation tomany regions in world and can produce severe weatherWhat is the Gulf Stream?a strong, fast moving, warm ocean current that originates in the gulf of mexico and moves to the atlantic ocean.What is the thermocline?the rapid temperature decrease with depth a few hundred meters below thesurfaceHow does oceanic temperature vary with depth?the temperature decreases with depthWhat is upwelling?

View Full Document

UIUC ATMS 100 - Notes

Documents in this Course
Exam 1

Exam 1

6 pages

Load more
Download Notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?