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Unit 3 Chapter 1Who are we?- Humans are a complex ongoing interaction between:o Our genetic inheritanceo Our lifestyle choiceso Environmental factors of many kinds DNA and Genes: The Basis of Heredity - The nucleus of every human cell contains an entire set of genetic instructions stored in our DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)- DNA has four building blocks that can be arranged to form a distinct message (gene) that acts as the body’s instruction booklet - A person’s genome is his/her complete set of DNA - Within the cell’s nucleus, DNA is divided into 23 pairs of chromosomes (one set of each pair comes from each parent) - Most cells become specialized, taking on characteristics shapes or functionso Skin, bone, nerve, muscleo Process is called differentiation- Stem cells are unspecialized cells o Embryotic stem cells in the embryo o Adult stem cells retained within tissues The Human Genome Project - Launched in 1990- An international collaboration of 20 groups in 6 countries - April 2003: announced that the sequencing of the human genome was complete The Human Genome Project Discoveries - Humans have only 20,000 to 25,000 genes (same as a mouse) - Potential applications in medicine and pharmaceuticals - Helped confirm that race is a sociocultural construct and has no biological basis - Humans share 99.9% of their DNA. All of the variation in humans is because of the other 0.1% of our DNA - Race doesn’t exist, it is a concept that we have come up with Genetic Mutations- A change in a gene is called a mutation - Alternate forms of the same gene are called alleles - Some mutations are neither harmful nor beneficial - Some may be harmful or cause disease- Mutations allow for human diversity More about Genes - Alternate forms of genes, called alleles, are responsible for traits such as eye color - Alleles can be dominant or recessive (recessive gene’s effects are hidden by dominant genes effects) - Most characteristics (such as height or skin color) are determined by the interaction of multiple genes at multiple sites of a different chromosomes Genetic Inheritance - It is the starting point for understanding your health (basic blueprint) - It is important for two reasons: o If you know what special health risks you may have, it gives you the chance to make informed lifestyle decisionso With advances in technology, it may allow you to address possible genetic disorders youcould pass on to your children Creating a Family Health Tree - Also called a genome or genetic pedigree - Visual representation of your family’s genetic history - Illustrates the patterns of health and illness within a family - Pinpoints areas of special concerns or risk for you.- Needed Information: each family member’s DOB, Major diseases, Cause of death and age - Useful additional data: age of family member when disease was diagnosed, disabilities, major operations, lifestyle habits, mental or physical health problems - The purpose is to illustrate the patterns of health and illness within a family (only about 1/3 of Americans have this info) What can you learn from your family health tree? - An early onset of disease is more likely to have a genetic component - The appearance of disease in multiple individuals in the same side of the family is more likely to have a genetic correlation - A family member with multiple cancers represent a greater likelihood of a genetic association - The presence of disease in family members who have good health habits is more suggestive of a genetic cause than is disease in members with poor health habits - No matter how consistent or clear a genetic link for disease you might discover, it is far from the certain proof that you too will get the disease Single-Gene Disorders - Some diseases are caused by the alteration (mutation) of a single gene - Sex-linked disorder: mutated gene is on the sex chromosome - Autosomal disorder: mutated gene is on one of the 22 non-sex chromosomes - Autosomal disorders: also have the characteristic where the gene mutation can be dominant or recessiveMultifactorial Disorders - Associated with the interactions of genes with environmental factors such as tobacco smoke, pollution, and diet- Account for the majority of illness and death in the developed world - One example of multifactorial disorder is heart disease Genetics and Mental Disorders - Many mental disorders are believed to have a genetic component, including:o Schizophrenia o Depression and Bipolar Disorder o Alzheimer’s Disease o Alcoholism/Addictions Genetics and Personality - Three broad aspects of temperament (the baseline for personality development) are visible in infants:o Sociability: eagerness or not to interact with people & their environment o Reactivity or Emotionality: tendency to react in a certain way to stimulus in their surroundings [joy or fear, shy or outgoing]o Activity Level: how expressive (quantitatively) we are in our reactions to our environment. [Subdued or Active] - These tendencies develop too early to be environmental Genetics and Behavior - Researchers are studying the genetic contribution to a variety of behaviors such as:o Personality, sexual orientation, addiction Management and Treatment of Genetic Conditions - Treatment includes: o Dietary modificationso Medicationso Environmental Adaptions o Behavior changes (exercise) o Gene Therapy Health Challenges in a Changing Society - Be an informed consumer - Develop health literacy—as many as 80 million American adults have limited health literacy skills- Understand medical research studies - Face current health concerns Health Research literacy - Correlational Studies: two things are linked, but can’t prove cause and effect- Experimental or Clinical studies: researcher manipulates one factor to see if there is cause and effect - Random Assignment of Studies: subjects are assigned to groups by random (not by volunteers) - Double Blind Designs: neither the subjects or the researcher knows which group is the experimental group—reduces risk of researcher biasImplications of Genetic Research - Medical advances and cures - Issues in genetic screening and testing (would you want to know?)- Issues of privacy and discrimination o Workplace discrimination o Health insurance discrimination - Eugenics (selective breeding) Transtheoretical Model—Stages of Change - The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) takes into account thinking, feelings, behaviors, relationships,and many other factors - Precontemplation: No

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KU HSES 260 - Unit 3

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