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Geography 102 Spring 2014Final Exam Review QuestionsChapter 9 (Q1 revised 5 May, 2014) In general, are developed countries currently more urban (i.e., higher population living in cities than in rural areas) than developing countries or are developing countries currently more urban than developed countries? In general, are developing countries currently experiencing higher rates of urbanization than developed countries or are developed countries currently experiencing higher rates of urbanization than developing countries (pp. 180-183)?- The percentage of people living in cities as compared to rural settings is higher in highly developed countries than in low ones. - Most urban growth in the world is occurring in rural settings in developing countrieso As of 2007, 8 of the 10 largest cities are in developing countries: Mexico City, Sao Paulo,Buenos Aires, and Kolkatao Mexico city represents the rapidity of urban growth in Latin America - Highly developed countries are experiencing little urban growth - Urbanization is increasing in highly developed nations as well, but at a much slower rate. o Faster growth in these developed nations has outstripped the limited capacity of many cities to provide basic servicesWhat is an urban agglomeration? Give an example. (pp. 181-182)?- Urban agglomerations: an urbanized core region that consists of several adjacent cities or megacities and their surrounding developed suburbso An example is Tokyo-Yokohama-Osaka-Koble agglomeration in Japan, which is home toabout 50 million people. What are the four (4) variables that urban ecologists study? (pp. 183) - Population: number of people and the factors that change those numbers- Organization: social structure of the city, including economic policies- Environment: natural environment and the changes in the natural environment caused by humans- Technology: human inventions that include aqueducts, which carry water long distances to cities in arid environments and air conditioning, which allows humans to live in comfortWhat is an urban heat island? A dust dome? (pp. 185-186)How can land use planning promote compact development? (pp. 187-188)- Urban Heat Island: local heat buildup in an area of high population density- Dust Dome: a dome of heated air that surrounds an urban area and contains a lot of air pollution- Cities develop effective land use policies that dictate where and how growth will occuro Land use planning: the process of deciding the best uses for land in a given areao Compact Development: the design of cities in which tall, multiple-unit residential buildings are close to shopping and jobs, and all are connected by public transportation Property owners have to abide by certain development rules and laws that occur within zoning Compact development involves things like using public transportation systems and employers providing bus passes to employees to reduce car use. How has transportation affected the spatial structure of cities? (pp. 188-189)- As cities grow, they expand along public transportation routes. - Technological advances enabled fixed transportation routes (trains and street trolleys) to spread out the city from the central business district from the 1870s to the 1910s and real estate developers began to build houses in places in the cities that were inaccessible before. People could now move quickly and inexpensively- Cars and trucks increased the spatial scale also.- Developers began building between the wild spaces (such as interstate highway systems and outer-city loops) that were far away from the city’s central business district- Now, effectively moving people from one place to another within the city system becomes more challenging because highways create pollution and traffic congestion whereas rail systems take years to build and are extremely expensive. Buses now seem to be the answerWhy is good governance so important in increasing sustainability in cities? (pp. 190-192)- Poor planning, corruption, and ineffective urban governance exacerbate many of the problems associated with urbanizations- The most effective governments are those that are democratic and participatory, in which local citizens are encouraged to work together to address local problems.Chapter 18What is famine? What are the main causes of famine? (p. 371)- Famine is a temporary but severe food shortage- Causes: crop failures caused by drought, war, flood, or some other catastrophic event.What are world grain stocks and how do they relate to food security? Why have world grain stocks declined in the last few years? (pp. 371-372)- World grain stocks: the amounts of rice, wheat, corn and other grains stored by the government from previous harvests as a cushion against poor harvests and rising prices. o These help provide us with one measure of food security o In 2010, the WGS was estimated at 73 day’s supplyo WGS’s have declined in the last years because: Environmental conditions such as rising temperatures, falling water tables, and droughts have caused poor harvests Severe weather events have occurred Heat waves Corn yields will be diverted to ethanol production instead of to food and animal feed  Consumption of beef, pork, poultry, and eggs has increased in China and other developing countries where people can afford to diversify their dietsWhat are the leading causes of hunger and famine according to the economist, Amartya Sen? (p. 372)- The leading cause is the type of government o Democratic govs are more likely to get their people fed in difficult times than are totalitarian regimeso Government inefficiencies and bureaucratic red tape add to food problems, making it difficult to distribute the food to the hungriest people and to ensure that those who need itget itWhat is the root cause of undernutrition? Explain. (pp. 372-373)- Povertyo Many of the world’s poorest people do not own land on which to grow food and do not have sufficient money to purchase food More than 1.3 billion people in developing countries have incomes so low that they cannot afford to eat enough food or enough of the right kinds of foodo Poor rural people living in areas without roads have few employment opportunities to improve their incomes o Infants, children, and the elderly are particularly susceptible to poverty and chronic hungerName the three (3) most important food crops. (p. 373)- Rice- Wheat- cornWhat is the difference between industrialized agriculture and subsistence

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Rutgers GEOGRAPHY 102 - Final Exam Review Questions

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