Unformatted text preview:

Respiration1. What are the four main processes of the respiratory system?a. Pulmonary ventilationb. External respirationc. Transport of respiratory gases in bloodd. Internal respiration2. What are the two portions of the airway? Describe eacha. Conducting zone leads from external environment to exchange surface b. Respiratory zone is where gas exchange occurs3. What are the two types of alveolar cells?a. Type 1 where gas exchange occursb. Type 2 where surfactant is produced to decrease surface tension4. What is the structure of the thoracic wall? Go from outside to inside.a. Thoracic wall, parietal pleura, intrapleural fluid, visceral pleura, lung5. What is Dalton’s law?a. Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of pressures exerted by each individual gas6. What is Boyle’s law?a. P1V1=P2V2b. The pressure of a fixed number of gas molecules is inversely proportional to the volume of the container7. Define intrapleural pressurea. The pressure in the intrapleural cavity, fluctuates with breathing but is always 4 mmHg less than the alveolar pressure8. Define transpulmonary pressurea. Equal to the intrapleural pressure minus the alveolar pressure9. Describe the process of inspiration.a. Volume of thoracic cage increases, diaphragm and inspiratory muscles contract causing an increase in lung volume, air flows from high pressure to low pressure10. Describe the process of expiration.a. Volume of thoracic cage decreases causing a decrease in lung volume and increased pressure in the alveoli, air flows from high pressure to low pressure 11. What is lung compliance?a. The ability of the lung to stretch, the change in volume of the lung resulting from a change in transpulmonary pressureb. Equal to change in lung volume/ change in transpulmonary pressure12. What is elastic recoil?a. The ability of the lungs to recover from being stretchedb. With increased compliance there is increased stretchability of the lung and insufficient recoilc. With decreased compliance the lungs resist change in volume13. What is the role of surfactant?a. It reduces the surface tension in lungs and prevents collapse of individual alveoli14. What is the law of Laplace?a. Describes the relationship between pressure, surface tension, and the radius of the alveolus (P= 2T/r)15. What effects airway resistance?a. System lengthb. Viscosity of substance flowing through lungsc. Radius of tubes in the system16. Where does airway resistance have the largest effect?a. Medium sized bronchi17. What is asthma?a. Disease characterized by intermittent episodes in which airway smooth muscle contracts, increasing airway resistanceb. Results from chronic inflammation of airwaysc. Makes airway smooth muscle hyperresponsived. Treat with anti inflammatory drugs and bronchodilator drugs18. What are some chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases?a. Emphysema: caused by destruction and collapse of smaller airwaysb. Chronic bronchitis: excessive mucus production in bronchi and chronic inflammatory changes in small airways19. What is tidal volume?a. Amount of air moved in and out of airways in a single cycle20. What is inspiratory reserve?a. Additional air that can be inspired21. What is expiratory reserve?a. Additional air that can be expired22. What is vital capacity?a. Total of inspiratory reserve, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve 23. What is residual volume?a. Air remaining in the lungs after maximum voluntary expiration24. How does the majority of oxygen travel in the blood?a. Bound to hemoglobin25. What is cooperative bindinga. This just means that the more oxygen bound to hemoglobin, the easier it is for the next oxygen molecule to bind26. What two factors do the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin depend on?a. Pressure of oxygen in the plasma surrounding the red blood cells containing hemoglobinb. Number of available binding sites for oxygen on hemoglobin27. What is the Bohr effect?a. H+ ions compete with oxygen for binding to hemoglobin, so an increased H+ concentration (lower pH) causes a decrease in oxygen affinity for hemoglobin and decreased binding28. How is the majority of CO2 transported in the blood?a. HCO3-29. What are the symptoms and treatment of CO poisoning?a. Symptoms: confusion, respiratory distress, red skinb. Treatment: hyperbaric treatment30. What is Hypoxia?a. Inadequate delivery of oxygen to tissues31. What are the different types of hypoxia? Describe each!a. Anemic hypoxia: poor oxygen delivery because there aren’t enough red blood cells or there is an abnormality in the hemoglobinb. Ischemic hypoxia: blood circulation is impairedc. Histotoxic hypoxia: body’s cells can’t use oxygend. Hypoxemic hypoxia: reduced arterial oxygen32. What is the difference in alveolar and capillary pressure of oxygen between healthy people and diseased people?a. The two pressures equilibrate quickly in healthy people, but in diseased people fluid accumulation between the alveoli and capillaries causes a much slower equilibration33. What is the relationship between ventilation and perfusion in the lung?a. Top of lung: increased ventilation and decreased perfusionb. Base of lung: decreased ventilation and increased perfusion34. What happens physiologically when there is a decrease in pressure of oxygen?a. Vasoconstriction of pulmonary vessels to reduce perfusion of poorly ventilated regions of lungb. No ventilation in area that receives blood (shunt)c. Bronchioles in the area dilate and systemic arteries dilateRenal35. What are the functions of the renal system?a. Regulation of water, inorganic ion balance, acid base balanceb. Removal of metabolic waste products from blood, excretion in urinec. Removal of foreign chemicals from blood, excretion in urined. Gluconeogenesise. Production of hormones and enzymes36. What two hormones are made in the kidneys?a. Erythropoietin: controls erythrocyte productionb. Renin: controls formation of angiotensin and influences blood pressure and Na+ balancec. 1.25- dihydroxvitamin D: influences Ca2+ balance37. Where does the blood supply for the kidneys come from?a. Renal artery branches off aorta, renal vein delivers blood to inferior vena cava38. What is the structure of the kidneys?a. Nephrons are functional unit of kidneysb. Renal capsule is tough outer coveringrenal cortexrenal medullarenal pelvis39. What is the structure of the glomerulus?a. Capillaries are fenestratedb. Inner layer contains branching epithelial cells (podocytes) ending in foot

View Full Document

CSU CHEM 343 - Respiration

Download Respiration
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Respiration and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Respiration 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?