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EXTERNAL LABOUR MARKETS the labor market outside the organization CHAPTER 4 LABOUR MARKETS Transnational National Sectoral Regional INTERNAL LABOUR MARKETS Functional Flexibility business environment means of enhancing competitiveness and adapting to change in the o Core employees o Peripheral employees o Functional permanent usually full time viewed as a valuable resource part time little employment security fewer skills employers ability to deploy employees core employees drawn from the primary labor market e g multi skilling horizontal job enlargement vertical job enlargement up and down job rotation Numerical Flexibility capacity of employers to adjust labor supply to fluctuations in business demand which may equal less job security e g part time temporary casual and job sharing o Temporal e g annual hours contract zero hours contract o Distancing contracting out e g agency staff subcontracting home working government subsidized treaties CONSIDERATIONS WHEN EXAMINING LABOUR MARKET ALL AFFECT THE SUPPLY Birth Rate Longevity Role of female workers Growth of underrepresented groups Examining migrant workers Historically people have been willing to move to find work or better paying jobs Industrial society came with technological changes Agrarian society Service society Information society MIGRANT WORKERS Rural to urban migration Transnational external Migration from Eastern European Countries to the UK THE UK S POINTS BASED SYSTEM APPROACH TO IMMIGRATION THE FIVE TIERS Tier 1 highly skilled workers exceptional talent who won international recognition Tier 2 skilled workers migrants require a certificate of sponsorship from a licensed sponsor Very few people outside the EU are able to work in skilled professions under Tier 2 split between those who qualify under the resident labor market test RLMT Tier 3 Low Skill Depending on the job we attract low skill Tier 4 Students Tier 5 Temporary Exchange European social model vs American free market model Britain s 3rd way Parental leave 52 weeks Part time employees in the middle Temporary workers protection in discrimination victimization and union members LABOUR MARKET IN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM Large number of individual units of varying size and many different types Many units operate 24 hours 7 days 365 days a year High fixed costs fixed rate of supply fluctuating seasonal and often unpredictable demand Production and service industries Wide variety of customers needs and expectations Service supplied directly to the customer Managers expected to demonstrate proficiency in technical and craft skills as well as in management area Services variable intangible inseparable perishable SUMMARY Low paid Long unsociable hours Many different skills required but relatively large number of semi skilled and unskilled staff High proportion of female part time casual and migrant labor Generally trade unions membership is low High labor mobility within industry and high turnover Industry is labor intensive QUIZ Q A 1 Aspects that are likely to impact labor supply include All of the above 2 Among the A8 Accession states that provided a major supply of migrant labor to the UK are Hungary 3 Tier 2 refers to non EU immigrants who are Skilled Workers 4 Regarding the national labor market the European Social approach can be characterized as An attempt to balance the interests of capital and labor 5 Regarding the national labor market recent directives from the EU have covered which of the following aspects All of the above 6 Reconsidering skill needed for the hospitality industry emotional and aesthetic labor is examples of soft skills True 7 According the utilization of flexible labor which researcher is associated with the flexible firm model Atkinson 8 Functional Flexibility is most associated with which concept Multi Skilled Employees 9 Numerical Flexibility can be associated with both external and internal means True 10 Internal Numerical Flexibility is largely concerned with which concept Shift Working CHAPTER 5 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION TWO IMPORTANT TASKS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY 1 Securing and keeping an adequate customer base 2 Securing and keeping an adequate number of qualified employees t What employees and how do we go about it the strategy how they decide to find people RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION DEFINITIONS Heery and Noon Recruitment Selection Start talking about interviews the work Selection and Recruitment are 2 different things but intertwined Hire for attitude mindset and we will train you with skills FACTORS THAT AFFECT RECRUITING METHODS Recruitment and Selection Constraints Legal Economic Organizational Position Industry when you are looking for a certain skilled person HOW ARE FUTURE EMPLOYEE NEEDS DETERMINED Forecast supply of employee s strategic direction of the organization forecast demand for employees 3 DIFFERENT AREAS YOU NEED TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION Job Analysis Armstrong the process of collecting analyzing and setting out information about the contents of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for recruitment training job evaluation and performance management It concentrates on what jobholders are expected to do Job Description Heery and Noon A document that outlines the purposes of the job the task involved the duties and responsibilities the performance of objectives and the reporting relationships It will give details of the terms and conditions including the remuneration package and hours of work Person Specification Beardwell and Holden While the job description considers the what aspects of the job the person specification is concerned with the who In this way the person specification should aim to provide a profile of the ideal person of the job In reality the ideal person for the job THE PERSON SPECIFICATION IS BASED ON EITHER 1 Rodgers 7 Point Plan like the resume 1957 Physical Characteristics the ability to lift heavy loads appearance speech and manner Attainments education professional qualification work experience considered necessary for job General Intelligence the ability to define and solve problems Special Aptitudes skills attributes or competencies relevant to the job Disposition job related behaviors such as demonstrating friendliness Circumstances domestic commitments or ability to work unsocial hours Interests work related or leisure pursuits that may have a bearing on the job 2 Munro Fraser s Five Fold Grading System this is more behavior based how to handle

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