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Dr Jas Sullivan Final Study Guide When we thing about categories we retrieve typical instances before atypical ones and it is also easier to retrieve info associated with the more typical instances Generally it is easier to process info about people who are typical of With the traditional stereotype categories of race gender age their categories occupation and sexual preference we surely have prototypes for those categories II Categorization of People Which Categories Are Used Two general answers have been provided as to why we use some categories and not others First category use is affected by category salience or what is Second some categories are cognitively more basic A Primary Categories Brewer among others has argued that age race and gender are especially likely to be primary categories called Why First they are perceptually significant Second both essential and identifying features tend to have at least some biological involvement for these categories Third they may have evolutionary significance as our ancestors needed to distinguish people on the bases of accumulated wisdom age reproductive potential gender and likelihood of belonging to the same group race Fourth these categories form the dominant hierarchy in many cultures Sidanius Pratto 1999 Fifth such categories are among the first social categories that children learn They distinguish between male and female different ages and races Sixth such categories are important culturally age and gender are important in all cultures I The Importance of Groups A The Social Dimension Stereotypes are products of our cognitive activity Stereotypes are also social products Stereotypes are products of our cultures as well It is unlikely that stereotypes are produced purely through cognitive mechanisms and we need to account for the emotion that accompanies some stereotypes but not others Stereotypes often seem to be integrally related to our group memberships and with conflict between groups B Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is a tendency to favor one s own group and to derogate or disparage or belittle other groups Derogation of outgroups is one of the most fundamental and universal features of all societies and cultures Do you believe this is natural To favor one s own group and belittle other groups When have you consciously or unconsciously done this Why do you think we do this 1 Is Outgroup Derogation Natural Spencer 1892 1893 had argued that human behavior is governed by a code of good relations positive feelings and behaviors toward those in one s group and code of hostility negative reactions to others not in this group Sumner 1907 invented the terminology of ingroup which he also called the we group and outgroup other group he though that hostility toward the outgroup fosters loyalty to the ingroup In other words conflict with other gropus not only naturally heightens negative feelings toward the outgruop but strengthens ingroup loyalties and feelings as well Sumner felt that attachment to gropus is necessary for survival and that division into competing groups is a natural part of social life He was influenced by the theory of evolution 2 Identity Theories SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY In his social identity theory SIT Henri Tajfel 1969 claimed that social groups are important sources of identity To the extent that people want to think highly about themselves then they will want to think highly of their groups In particular people will be motivated to see as much difference between ingroup and outgroup dimensions Tajfel Turner 1979 SELF CATEGORIZATION THEORY John Turner Oakes Haslam Turner 1994 has broadened SIT in what has been called self categorization theory Generally SC emphasizes that the significance of group identities ebbs and flows depending on a host of situational and cognitive variables Sometimes you are placed in a situation where your group membership is made significant by virtue of contrasts with other groups For example if you are at a meeting and you are the only African American at the meeting your group membership is made significant by virtue that you are the only one of a different race there When you are in a situation that emphasizes one of your group memberships it will play a larger role in your momentary identity Hogg Turner 1987 C The Nature of Groups 1 Group Identification When we identify with a group we adopt group features as a part of our identify Brewer 1991 What does this statement mean Can you give me an example does it do Why be part of a group or organization What NEED SATISFACION One obvious factor that determines group identification is how well the group satisfies basic needs Identification with an organization depends in part on how positively other people are perceived to value the organization and to the extent to which the organization stereotypes are positive Bergami Bagozzi 2000 OPTIMAL DISTINCTIVENESS THEORY Marilyn Brewer argues that social identities fulfill two somewhat incompatable goals On one hand people want to be part of gropus to feel similar to others as a means of self validation On the other hand people want to feel unique and special and this leads to intergroups comparison and sometimes to outgroup derogation According to Brewer 1991 people strive to identify with groups providing an optimal level of inclusiveness that satisfies both needs However what is optimal may vary form time to time and from context to context IDENTIFICATION IS MULTIDEMINSIONAL Prejudice is an attitude and like most attitudes it is multifaceted I Prejudice Prejudice is a kind of prejudgment an affective or emotional response to a group of people or an individual from the group complex and fairly momentary with moods experience and the salience of goals among other things A Beliefs and Prejudice 1 Are Stereotypes and Prejudice Related We know that stereotypes and prejudice are related It is likely we employ stereotypes to justify prejudices as well as the reverse In most cases the attitudes we have toward classes of things change 2 The Importance of Other Factors SYMBOLIC BELIEFS AND AFFECTS Zanna 1993 argues that at least our somewhat independent factors predict prejudice First stereotypes Second beliefs about whether a group facilitates or blocks important value goals or symbolic beliefs Third past experiences Fourth emotion 3 The Importance of Personality CULTURAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS Even people who are not conventionally prejudiced can be so under some circumstances II Discrimination D Does

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LSU AAAS 4020 - Final Study Guide

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