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Dr. Jas Sullivan Final Study Guide • When we thing about categories, we retrieve typical instances before atypical ones, and it is also easier to retrieve info associated with the more typical instances• Generally, it is easier to process info about people who are typical of their categories• With the traditional stereotype categories of race, gender, age, occupation, and sexual preference, we surely have prototypes for those categories.•• II. Categorization of People: Which Categories Are Used?• Two general answers have been provided as to why we use some categories and not others. • First, category use is affected by category salience, or what is called.• Second, some categories are cognitively more basic. • A. Primary Categories• Brewer, among others, has argued that age, race, and gender are especially likely to be primary categories. • Why?• First, they are perceptually significant. • Second, both essential and identifying features tend to have at least some biological involvement for these categories. • Third, they may have evolutionary significance, as our ancestors needed to distinguish people on the bases of accumulated wisdom (age), reproductive potential (gender), and likelihood of belonging to the same group (race).• Fourth, these categories form the dominant hierarchy in many cultures (Sidanius&Pratto, 1999)• Fifth, such categories are among the first social categories that children learn. They distinguish betweenmale and female, different ages, and races.• Sixth, such categories are important culturally; age and gender are important in all cultures.• I. The Importance of Groups• A. The Social Dimension• Stereotypes are products of our cognitive activity• Stereotypes are also social products.• Stereotypes are products of our cultures as well.• It is unlikely that stereotypes are produced purely through cognitive mechanisms, and we need to account for the emotion that accompanies some stereotypes butnot others.• Stereotypes often seem to be integrally related to our group memberships and with conflict between groups. • B. Ethnocentrism• “Ethnocentrism” is a tendency to favor one’s own group and to derogate (or disparage or belittle) other groups.• Derogation of outgroups is one of the most fundamental and universal features of all societies and cultures. • Do you believe this is natural? To favor one’s own group and belittle other groups? When have you consciously or unconsciously done this?• Why do you think we do this?• 1. Is Outgroup Derogation Natural?• Spencer (1892-1893) had argued that human behavior is governed by a “code of good relations” (positive feelings and behaviors toward those in one’s group) and“code of hostility” (negative reactions to others not in this group).• Sumner (1907) invented the terminology of “ingroup” (which he also called the “we group”) and “outgroup” (other-group); he though that hostility toward the outgroup fosters loyalty to the ingroup• In other words, conflict with other gropus not only naturally heightens negative feelings toward the outgruop, but strengthens ingroup loyalties and feelingsas well. • Sumner felt that attachment to gropus is necessary for survival and that division into competing groups is a natural part of social life. (He was influenced by the theory of evolution).• 2. Identity Theories• SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY• In his “social identity theory (SIT),” Henri Tajfel (1969) claimed that social groups are important sources of identity. • To the extent that people want to think highly about themselves, then, they will want to think highly of their groups.• In particular, people will be motivated to see as much difference between ingroup and outgroup dimensions (Tajfel & Turner, 1979).• SELF-CATEGORIZATION THEORY• John Turner (Oakes, Haslam, &Turner, 1994) has broadened SIT in what has been called “self categorization theory”• Generally, SC emphasizes that the significance of group identities ebbs and flows, depending on a host of situational and cognitive variables.• Sometimes you are placed in a situation where your group membership is made significant by virtue of contrasts with other groups.• For example, if you are at a meeting and you are the only African American at the meeting, your group membership is made significant by virtue that you are the only one of a different race there. • When you are in a situation that emphasizes one of your group memberships, it will play a larger role in your momentary identity (Hogg & Turner, 1987).• C. The Nature of Groups• 1. Group Identification• When we identify with a group, we adopt group features as a part of our identify (Brewer, 1991)• What does this statement mean? Can you give mean example?• Why be part of a group- or organization? What does it do?• NEED SATISFACION• One obvious factor that determines group identification is how well the group satisfies basic needs.• Identification with an organization depends, in part, on how positively other people are perceivedto value the organization and to the extent to which the organization stereotypes are positive. (Bergami & Bagozzi, 2000)• OPTIMAL-DISTINCTIVENESS THEORY• Marilyn Brewer argues that social identities fulfill two somewhat incompatable goals.• On one hand, people want to be part of gropus-to feel similar to others as a means of self-validation.• On the other hand, people want to feel unique andspecial, and this leads to intergroups comparison and sometimes to outgroup derogation.• According to Brewer (1991), people strive to identify with groups providing an optimal level of inclusiveness that satisfies both needs.• However, what is optimal may vary form time to time and from context to context. • IDENTIFICATION IS MULTIDEMINSIONAL•• I. Prejudice• Prejudice is a kind of prejudgment, an affective or emotional response to a group of people or an individual from the group. • Prejudice is an attitude, and like most attitudes, it is multifaceted, complex and fairly momentary.• In most cases, the attitudes we have toward classes of things change with moods, experience and the salience of goals, among other things.•• A. Beliefs and Prejudice• 1. Are Stereotypes and Prejudice Related?• We know that stereotypes and prejudice are related. It is likely we employ stereotypes to justify prejudices, as well as the reverse. • 2. The Importance of

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LSU AAAS 4020 - Final Study Guide

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