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Plato 1 What is the question of the Ion Why can Ion speak so beautifully and perfectly about Homer yet no other poet Why is he Whether or not he holds true episteme knowledge or if he is relying on divine inspiration only a master of one poet as he performs Who is to be the qualified interpreter of language from the past then 2 What do Socrates questions reveal about Ion himself About Greek Society Ion is an idiot but is so powerful because as a rhapsode he conveys Homer what is held to be absolute truth to society Ion relies on others opinions of how good he is He is divinely possessed and inspired not a master The Greek audience gives Ion a sense that he is wise and they admire the truth that he sings of when in reality he has no idea what he is saying Audience gives Homer a sense that he is wise Greek civic religion is represented by a moron therefore Greek society does not rest on a foundation of knowledge Their religion which is tied to their civic lives is based on entertainment 3 Why did Socrates pursue his way of life as a philosopher Life as a philosopher began when he rejected the Oracle of Delphi that claimed that Socrates was the wisest man Wanted to prove the oracle wrong he knew that he was not wise Philosophy begins in skepticism and questioning He claims that he stands for something greater and won t be satisfied with riddles 4 Why did he think himself wiser than any other person in Athens Moment of questioning and deep skepticism that led to the beginning of his never ending philosophy and deep questioning of everything Socrates knows that he is not wise and that his wisdom is worthless 5 Why after all his eloquence was he found guilty and sentenced to death He refused to admit that he believed in the gods of the city Refused because he said he stands for something greater than the City the truth Insults the jury while he is defending himself private vs public life His questioning of everything pisses people off 6 Why did he refuse to escape from prison He would appear a hypocrite and a fool Since in his time philosophers were viewed as a danger to the city and its laws he knew that if he were to leave it would prove that philosophers disrespect the law and cannot be trusted Wanted to make it clear that philosophers do care for the state in a critical way Argues that one must not do harm to the other even if you have been wronged Escaping prison would be harming others By escaping he would be trying to destroy the republic and he has no right to after it has nurtured him He chose to follow the laws and stay in the city 1 Never do injustice even in return for a wrong 2 One ought to fulfill just arguments 3 Humans by nature need society to live well 4 Society needs laws to exist 5 To disobey the law is to destroy the law 6 To destroy the law is to destroy society 7 To destroy society is to harm those who need it to live well Death is good because he can converse with and question great poets 7 What is Socrates argument with Cephalus With Polemarchus With Thrasymachus Cephalus is the father of Polemarchus They discuss what it s like to be really old does old age bring consolation Argument is structured so that Cephalus will leave because he is not capable of having discussion and he is too rooted in his beliefs Old age brings moderation Cephalus is not frantic because of his wealth Cephalus Polemarchus Polemarchus argues that justice is doing well to your friends and harming your enemies Socrates argues that justice can t be reduced to a list of things because you can always ask why is this on the list People who think of living a just life is following certain rules are wrong How can there be justice if injustice in people increases harming an enemy Thrasymachus argues that justice is the advantage of the stronger therefore being just does Thrasymachus not only help you but others Socrates argues 1 Desire to always have more can make you a fool 2 Overarching art that umbrellas over all the arts IF all power is in one group then the good of the public will cease to exist A true ruler does not wish to rule promotes justice he who wishes to rule will rule with self interest Trying to be best always isn t good because it could put you on the wrong path Unwise to always want more 8 What is the myth of the ring of Gyges What role does it play in the discussion about the nature of justice Poor shepherd finds a ring after an earthquake If he turns the ring inward he could become invisible Seduces the queen kills the king and takes over the kingdom Proves that the unjust life is better than a just life Justice is a good thing in itself Anyone who doesn t act unjustly is a fool injustice is what people are prone to do and it is better to act unjustly It is better to appear just than to be just It is best to live unjustly but justly enough to get by 9 What according to Plato are the parts of the soul Rational lusts after truth and controls the appetitive must rule Appetitive lusts after luxuries Spirited lusts after honor and is the emotional side of what is believed to be good 10 Explain is the myth of the cave Allegory displaying the dominance and controlling presence of society People are chained since childhood The only thing that they are able to see is the shadows of the people and what is on the wall in front of them as a result of the fire The manipulators have power and want them to have a certain version of reality Seeing the fires and statues BELIEF Pain and confusion at first Statues and fires are the most real things now Outside world THOUGHT See real objects such as flowers trees and animals Cognitive stage of thought now sees the forms Looking at the sun UNDERSTANDING Reason he sees everything is because of the sun 11 How does the ideal city corrupt into ever worse forms of government Ideal city is ruled by a philosopher king Starts at Kallipolis wisdom rational Possible if the gods sent someone down to rule but not very because of lack of knowledge Timocracy honor spirited part of the soul Happens because the leaders mess up the birth ratio mistakes lead to others Driven by honor Oligarchy rule of few appetites Money becomes very important for funding war Those eager to fight become dependent on those with money to fund wars Those who want honor become dependent on the few Democracy rule of the common people many Poor feel contempt for the rich Revolution unstable Tyranny Tyrant comes out of the …

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BC PO 29124 - Plato

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