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Fritz Perls 3 principles Gestalt therapy Own your projections o Don t say things about other people o Worry about yourself o Avoided interpreting Action Awareness Continuum o Paying attention o Action Emerging Figure Awareness Contact interruption points Genuine Emotions Interactions o Do what feels right o Be authentic real 6 boundary disturbances mild moderate severe 1 introjections taking in without awareness 2 projection similar to Freud s 3 retroflection does to self what we want to do to others moderate form of isolation 4 deflection interrupt the action awareness process 5 confluence boundary between self environment is weak too easily influenced by others no individual sense of self inhibitions 6 isolation self environment boundary is lost loss of importance of others to self Emotional involvement interaction 3rd of Perls 3 principles speak the truth do what feels right and be real authentic Etiology of psychopathology Emotional suffering is related to the degree to which people are not sufficiently aware of what is occurring in the ever present NOW unmet needs undischarged tensions cause stress and in sufficient quantity are responsible for mental illness False compassion and its effects if you aren t true to yourself you will experience one of the 6 boundary disturbances Incomplete gestalt def a need system which requires satisfaction 1 Bodily yearnings kinesthetics Lose your mind come to your senses 2 Synthesis not analysis Avoid analysis paralysis stop analyzing so much 3 Find satisfaction for emotions Both internal external events were behaviors Find answers from within not from an analysis of the past Influence of Vaihinger Theory re Freud s transference Carl Rogers 2 structures Self Ideal Self 3 in born systems 1 Self actualizing tendency people are born to live up full potential become whole set goals and go after them 2 Valuing system each individual has own unique values and the wisdom to know and seek out needs and wants 3 Need for regard everyone needs wants some level of acceptance Unconditional positive regard is when someone accepts you for who you are completely but when that doesnt happen you get conditions of worth Advantages disadvantages of Theory Advantages o 1 His theory is easily understood communicable o 2 Good set of techniques useful in treatment especially persons with minor problems o 3 Easy to understand techniques can be easily taught o 4 Positive Psychology was influenced by these approaches mirroring Disadvantages o No diagnosis seen as too judgmental pejorative o Not useful with moderate severe psychopathology o No treatment plans o Places too much emphasis on clients coming up with their own answers o More to life than getting needs met UPR o Sometimes a diagnosis is necessary Basic estrangement of man distortion loss of sense of self Basic Estrangement of Man o society has a way of getting in the way Treatment Conditions of worth Focus on Awareness and Self Actualization o dissolving the conditions of worth Empathy Focus must be on the here now o technique demonstrate empathy viz mirroring UPR o help them get in touch with their true self symbolize true experiences without fear of conditions of worth o emphasis on empathy as a mode of treatment How experiences are symbolized Incongruency normal and severe types Mirroring Need for Regard Non Directive Client Centered Path of treatment A Focus on Awareness Self actualization dissolving the conditions of worth B Focus must be on the here now technique demonstrate empathy viz mirroring UPR help them get in touch with their true self symbolize true experiences without fear of conditions of worth emphasis on empathy as a mode of treatment C Client centered therapy non directive 1 decrease in conditions of worth 2 increase in UPR through empathic understanding 3 reduce a person s sense of threat 4 defense mechanisms are resolved D Important to get into client s internal frame of reference individuals can come up with their own answers to their questions Phenomenology Self actualizing tendency Valuing system Unconditional Positive Regard Terrence Real 2 types of people re love love addicts love avoiders the love addicts use relationships like they use drugs the love avoiders get close then disappear when it gets intense neither is true intimacy 3 stages of love Love without knowledge Knowledge without love Mature love 50 don t reach this level 3 rings of Patriarchy the great divide dance of contempt the first one its easier for girls to cross over the line wear skirts but the boys barely cross over the second value one and devalue the other normally female code of silence o you don t talk about the pains of men o o o o 5 levels of Intimacy thoughts feelings physical closeness spirituality sexuality 5 Losing 5 Winning Strategies 5 losing strategies retaliation withdrawing 5 winning strategies o need to be right need to control unbridled self expression o shift from complaint to request speaking out with love and savvy respond generosity empower each other cherish 20 Relationship practices Different socialization and deformities Harmony disharmony repair Leslie Brody s research Patriarchy Pre conditions for intimacy Traditional Couples Therapy Terry s Treatment approach What men need to learn What women need to learn Pavlov Watson classical conditioning Pavlov involuntary associative paired elicited behaviors conditioned stimulus response Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 o UCS meat powder UCR salivation o UCS meat powder CS bell tone UCR salivation o CS bell tone alone CR salivation development of phobias Little Albert basically it is possible to instill a fear response thru classical conditioning so you can explain phobias by straight forward learning principles Little kid who didn t fear rat played with it Next time he had the rat they played a loud bell and albert started crying Next time just rat baby cried second order conditioning Second Ordered Conditioning Generalization Phase 2 o UCS meat powder CS bell tone CS2 e g Environmental Gray Block UCR salivation Generalization Phase 3 o CS Bell Tone Alone or CS 2 Gray Block CR salivation unconditioned stimulus response Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Therapy 8 Basic concepts 1 Potential to be rational as well as irrational 2 Frequently exacerbated by their culture and their family group 3 Humans tend to perceive think emote and behave simultaneously 4 Focus of treatment is highly cognitive active directive HW assigning discipline oriented 5 A warm


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BU CAS PS 251 - Fritz Perls

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